Types of colonialism

  • Settler colonialism: Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons. It aims largely to replace any existing population. Australia, Canada, the United States, Apartheid South Africa (and to a more controversial extent Israel) are examples of settler-colonial societies.
  • Exploitation colonialism: it involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or labour to the benefit of the metropole. This category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration.
  • Surrogate colonialism: Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by a colonial power, in which most of the settlers do not come from the same ethnic group as the ruling power.
  • Internal colonialism: Internal colonialism is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a state. The source of exploitation comes from within the state. This is demonstrated in the way control and exploitation may pass from people from the colonizing country to an immigrant population within a newly independent country.
  • National colonialism: National colonialism is a process involving elements of both settler and internal colonialism, in which nation-building and colonization are symbiotically connected, with the colonial regime seeking to remake the colonized peoples into their own cultural and political image. The Republic of China in Taiwan is the archetypal example of a national-colonialist society.
  • Trade Colonialism: Trade Colonialism is a focus on control over the trading relationships of the colony. A good example of trade colonialism is the British trade coercion post-1842 Opium war in China forcing the opening of additional ports for foreign trade.

Types of Colonies