Protection Measures of Coral Reefs

  • Corals are included in Schedule-I list of the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972: Ministry of Environment and Forest vide its notification dated 11 July 2001 has included all the hard coral in the Schedule List of WLPA of 1972
  • Environment Protection Act, 1986 (EPA): It confers exclusive jurisdiction to the Central Government to preserve and protect the marine environment and to prevent and control marine pollution.
  • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (CRZ) 1991 under the EPA: It is the only law that explicitly outlaws coral mining in India.
  • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): to preserve the certain areas of the nation’s waters, including some areas with coral reefs.


There are a total five coral reef MPAs in India:

o Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve which includes Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park,

o Gulf of Kutch Marine National Park,

o Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park in Andamans,

o Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve; and

o Rani Jhansi Marine National (Richies Archipelago).

• No take zones (NTZs) are areas designated in a number of the world’s MPAs, where all forms of exploitation are prohibited and severely limits human activities. These no take zones can cover an entire MPA, or specific portions.



  • Aichi Target 10 — which concerns reducing pressures on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification
  • The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) is an operational network of ICRI (International Coral Reef Initiative)with the primary task of reporting on the condition of the world’s coral reefs.