Characteristics of volcanic mountains

  • A magma chamber is a hollow space inside the earth surface. The molten rocks are called magma. It is present just below the vent of the volcano and is a source of lava.
  • Magma chamber contains molten rocks and gases under high pressure. Conduit is a pipe-like structure through which magma comes out and it opens into the main vent. The depth of the magma chamber is usually 1km to 10 km.
  • A vent is a hole in the earth’s surface through which the lava comes out with great pressure. Generally vent is a weak point on the crust of the earth. There could be more than one vents of a volcanic mountain.
  • Lava is the molten rock or magma that comes through a volcanic vent. It generally consists of silicates or silica rocks and is in liquidor semi-solid form.  The temperature of lava is anywhere between 700 0 C to 12000
  • Lava cools and hardens after coming into contact with the air. This cooled lava forms a volcanic mountain-like shape.
  • Craters are the circular depressions around the main vent. Craters are developed due to a large explosion in the volcano. These are formed when the magma chamber is present near the vent.
  • The volcano becomes active due to the creation of high pressure in the magma chamber. Generally, the magma chamber contains a large amount of water which is continuously converting into steam because of the geothermal energy. When the pressure becomes so high, it comes out as an explosion causing a volcanic eruption.
  • A pyroclastic flow is the flow of molten semi-liquid lava away from the volcanic mountain, downhill.