Residual landform, also called Relict Landform, landform that was produced as the remains of an ancient landscape, escaping burial or destruction to remain as part of the present landscape. Residual landforms are often the result of changed climatic conditions, but they may be due to volcanism or to crustal uplift and downwarping.
Circum-erosional or Relict or Residual mountains (Aravallis in India, Urals in Russia) are the remnants of old fold mountains derived as a result of denudation (strip of covering).
Residual mountains may also evolve from plateaus which have been dissected by rivers into hills and valleys.
Examples of dissected plateaux, where the down-cutting streams have eroded the uplands into mountains of denudation, are the Highlands of Scotland, Scandinavia and the Deccan Plateau.