With a coastline of 7517 km, India is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones. Although cyclones affect the entire coast of India, the eastern coast is significantly more prone to cyclones as compared to the western coast.
NCRMP (National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project) data show that about 58 percent of the cyclones that are formed in the Bay of Bengal hit and cross the eastern coast while only 25 percent of the cyclones developing in the Arabian sea are seen approaching the western coast of India.
- The temperature of the sea surface and humidity are the most important factors responsible for the formation of cyclones. The average rainfall seen by the Bay of Bengal is very high and hence the probability of the formation of cyclones in this region is also correspondingly very high.
- Tropical depression is a predominant occurrence in the Indo-Gangetic plains and this natural phenomenon is highly responsible for the cyclone formation in the Bay of Bengal.
- Bay of Bengal witnesses an average temperature of 28 degree Celsius. Warm air and the fresh water pouring into the bay from the rivers in the region increase the surface temperature of the sea further resulting in tropical depression.
- Cyclonic winds from other water bodies are transferred by Bay of Bengal. The lack of landmass in the Bay of Bengal basin means that the cyclones occurring in the region do not weaken and easily move towards the eastern coastline.