Pigment purpurogallin

Source: DTE Context: A team of scientists from the UK and Canada traced the evolution of purple glacier algae, revealing their significant impact on glaciers and challenging traditional evolutionary theories. These algae, which thrive in extreme glacier environments, have evolved to produce a purple pigment, purpurogallin, that protects them from UV and visible light, aiding …

Capsaicin

Source: DTE Context: Denmark has recalled several spicy Korean instant ramen noodles produced by Samyang due to concerns over high levels of capsaicin, which could cause “acute poisoning.” Capsaicin, the compound that gives chilli peppers their heat, can cause inflammation and irritation in the digestive tract, potentially leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and …

Bio-bitumen

 Source: ET Context: India is planning to produce bio-bitumen from biomass and agricultural waste to reduce its reliance on imports and address stubble-burning issues in road construction. Currently, India imports about half of its annual bitumen requirement. A pilot study by the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) and the Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, will …

Matsya 6000

Source: PIB Context: India is set to become the sixth country to have its own Deep Sea Mission. The first stage of the harbour trial aims at reaching a depth of 40-50 meters. The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) developed Matsya 6000, a submersible capable of reaching depths of 6000 meters, and collaborated with …

Divya Drishti

Source: ET Context: “Divya Drishti” is an advanced AI tool developed by the woman-led start-up Ingenious Research Solutions. The tool integrates facial recognition with gait and skeleton analysis to enhance identification accuracy and reduce false positives and identity fraud. This dual-approach biometric authentication system has versatile applications across various sectors, including defence, law enforcement, corporate, …

Kavli Prize

 Source: IE  Context: The Kavli Prize, named after Norwegian-American philanthropist Fred Kavli, donors’ significant achievements in astrophysics, neuroscience, and nanoscience. Established by the Kavli Foundation in 2000, the prize is awarded biennially and includes a $1 million cash award per field, along with a medal and a scroll. It mirrors the Nobel Prize but is …

National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage (NIIMH)

 Source: ET, PIB  Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage (NIIMH) in Hyderabad as a Collaborating Centre for “Fundamental and Literary Research in Traditional Medicine” (CC IND-177) for four years. This marks the first time a WHO Collaborating Centre has been established for this specific field.    …

Donanemab

 Source: IE Context: A new Alzheimer’s drug, donanemab, has received support from an FDA advisory committee, moving closer to approval. Intended for early-stage Alzheimer’s, it shows significant slowing of cognitive decline. The drug works by targeting amyloid beta protein deposits in the brain. Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking …

Fatty liver disease

 Source: TH Context: The rise in fatty liver disease, now termed Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), is closely linked to metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol levels. MASLD, particularly its progressive form known as Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH), which causes liver inflammation and scarring, is expected to become the …

Enterobacter bugandensis

Source: DTE Context: A collaborative study by IIT-Madras and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has examined the behaviour of multi-drug resistant Enterobacter bugandensis aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This bacterium, known for causing difficult-to-treat hospital infections, displayed significant genomic and functional adaptations due to the unique ISS environment, including microgravity, elevated CO2, and increased radiation. …

Xylitol

 Context: A recent study has found that artificial sweeteners, particularly xylitol, commonly found in products like sugar-free chewing gums, low-sugar baked goods, mints, and toothpaste, may increase the risk of blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. The study revealed that xylitol enhances platelet aggregation and activity, leading to a hypercoagulable state. This heightened platelet reactivity …

Microalgae

  Context: Scientists at the CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) have identified microalgae, specifically ‘Chlorella sorokiniana’, as a promising protein supplement for food and feed.   Their research highlights the Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF), a protein-rich extract from the algae, which offers high-quality protein and essential amino acids that surpass those in commercially available …

Apple Intelligence

   Context: Apple introduced “Apple Intelligence” a generative AI system integrated into iPhones, iPads, and Macs via iOS 18, iPadOS 18, and macOS Sequoia. Apple Intelligence combines generative AI with personal context to provide personalized, context-aware responses, enhancing user experience while prioritizing privacy through on-device processing and Private Cloud Compute. Key features include: Writing Tools …

Sympatric speciation

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IITB  Context: A study by researchers at IIT Bombay, challenged the traditional view that new species can only develop in geographically isolated areas (allopatric speciation). Instead, it demonstrates that new species can evolve in the same area without geographic barriers, a process known as sympatric speciation. The study used …