AI in drug development

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH   Context: AI has significantly enhanced the efficiency and speed of drug development, a traditionally costly and time-consuming process.   AI Tools in Drug Development: AlphaFold 3 and RoseTTAFold All-Atom: Developers: AlphaFold is developed by DeepMind, a Google company, and RoseTTAFold by the University of Washington. Functionality: These …

Total solar eclipse  

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE  Context: A total solar eclipse will cross North America, passing over Mexico, the United States, and Canada. This type of solar eclipse is a rare event for any particular spot. According to Royal Museums Greenwich, once a place on Earth witnesses a total solar eclipse, it will be about …

Usage of Embedded SIM for Machine-to-Machine Communications

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB  Context: The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has released recommendations on the ‘Usage of Embedded SIM for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communications’ following a request from the Department of Telecommunications (DoT). The recommendations aim to streamline the regulatory framework for M2M embedded SIM (eSIM) in India, especially for applications …

AI Tool Predicts Neem Fruit Metabolite Content

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH    Context: Researchers at Jawaharlal Nehru University’s School of Biotechnology have developed an Artificial Intelligence-based tool to predict the metabolite content in neem fruits, specifically azadirachtin, which is used as a biopesticide. The AI model analyses images of neem leaves and fruits to classify them as having either …

SIMA

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE   Context: Google DeepMind has unveiled SIMA (Scalable Instructable Multiworld Agent), a new AI gaming agent capable of understanding and executing natural language instructions to perform tasks across various video game environments. Unlike AI models trained on specific datasets, SIMA functions as a generalist AI agent, able to process …

ChipIN Centre

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB  Context: The ChipIN Centre, a hub for chip designers in India, received a boost from leading semiconductor industry players, aiming to empower the semiconductor design community in the country. The centre offers state-of-the-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to students at various academic levels. These initiatives aim to …

Frontier Technology Labs

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB    Context: Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and Meta have collaborated to launch Frontier Technology Labs (FTLs) in schools across India, aiming to democratize access to future technologies and empower youth to innovate. These labs, an advanced version of Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs), will provide state-of-the-art infrastructure for students …

Penicillin G

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE Context: India is set to restart the manufacturing of the common antibiotic Penicillin G after three decades, with Hyderabad-based Aurobindo Pharma leading the initiative. The halt in Penicillin manufacturing in India during the ’90s was primarily due to cheaper Chinese products flooding the market, rendering Indian production unviable. …

Garbhini-GA2

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH   Context: Researchers have developed Garbhini-GA2, an India-specific artificial intelligence model, to accurately determine the gestational age of a fetus during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This model, created by the Indian Institute of Technology Madras and Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, is part of …

Quasar

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: CNN  Context: Astronomers have discovered the brightest object in the universe, a quasar powered by the fastest-growing black hole on record. Initially mistaken for a star, the quasar, named J0529-4351, was found using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. It is located over 12 billion light-years away and …

OPENAI: Sora

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE    Context: OpenAI has introduced Sora, a new generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) model capable of converting text prompts into videos up to a minute long with maintained visual quality and adherence to user instructions. Sora can create complex scenes with multiple characters, accurate details, and vibrant emotions, though …

Frozen smoke

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: Science Daily  Context: Researchers have developed a ground-breaking sensor using “frozen smoke,” or aerogels, which can detect formaldehyde in real-time at concentrations as low as eight parts per billion. Formaldehyde is a common indoor air pollutant emitted by various household items. This innovation could significantly enhance indoor air quality …

The high-altitude pseudo satellite vehicle (HAPS)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE  Context: The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) in Bengaluru has successfully conducted the first test of a solar-powered “pseudo satellite” called HAPS (High-Altitude Pseudo Satellite), a new type of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). HAPS can fly at altitudes of 18-20 km, remain airborne for months or even years, and …

Ultracold atoms

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: Researchers at the Raman Research Institute (RRI) have developed a new image-correction technique to enhance the study of cold atoms, particularly those at absolute zero temperatures. This technique eliminates 50% of unwanted interference fringes in images, crucial for understanding the quantum mechanics properties of cold atoms. Traditional …

Hypervelocity expansion tunnel test facility

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: Hindustan Times Context: The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) has developed and successfully tested India’s first hypervelocity expansion tunnel test facility, making the country one of the few nations with this advanced hypersonic testing capability. The facility, named S2 or “Jigarthanda,” is located within IIT Kanpur’s hypersonic experimental aerodynamics …

GRAPES-3 experiment

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PHYS.ORG  Context: The GRAPES-3 experiment, conducted by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Ooty, India, has identified a new feature in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum around 166 tera-electron-volts (TeV), expanding our understanding of cosmic-ray origins and acceleration mechanisms. Cosmic rays, the universe’s most energetic particles, constantly bombard Earth’s …

Zodiacal light

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: A study conducted at the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad examined the origin of interplanetary dust responsible for zodiacal light, focusing on Mars’ moons, Deimos and Phobos. About Zodiacal light: Zodiacal light is a faint, diffuse glow of sunlight scattered by dust particles that orbit the sun. It appears …

Solid-state battery

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE  Context: Toyota aims to launch next-generation solid-state batteries within three years, with the potential for two sets of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in its line-up—one using existing lithium-ion batteries and another featuring the new solid-state batteries. The breakthrough technology could revolutionize EVs by doubling range and significantly reducing …

End-to-end encryption

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH    Context: End-to-end encryption (E2E) is a method of protecting digital information by transforming it into an unreadable format, and it has significant implications for privacy and security. Encryption fundamentally involves changing consumable information into an unconsumable form based on specific rules.   There are two main types …