Pigeonpea

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: DTE  Context: A new fast-breeding protocol has been developed by scientists at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to accelerate the development of improved varieties of pigeonpea, an essential legume crop for nutritional security in drylands. Traditionally, developing a new pigeonpea variety takes around 13 …

Venom-neutralising antibody

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: Scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc.) in Bengaluru have developed a synthetic human antibody capable of neutralizing a potent neurotoxin produced by highly toxic snakes from the Elapidae family, including cobras, king cobras, kraits, and black mambas. This breakthrough marks the first time a specific …

Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB    Context: The Union Cabinet, approved the continuation of the centrally sponsored Scheme, the Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP), with a total outlay of Rs. 4,100 crore for a period of 5 years from 2021-22 to 2025-26. The scheme comprises two components:   Flood Management Programme …

CE20 cryogenic engine

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: WION  Context: ISRO has achieved a significant milestone in its Gaganyaan mission by completing the human rating of its CE20 cryogenic engine, which powers the cryogenic stage of the human-rated LVM3 launch vehicle. Human-rating refers to rating a system that is capable of safely transporting humans This achievement comes …

Green anaconda

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: Researchers have discovered that the green anaconda, previously thought to be a single species, actually consists of two genetically distinct species: the “southern green anaconda” (Eunectes murinus) and the newly identified “northern green anaconda” (Eunectes akayima). The northern green anaconda is found in countries such as Ecuador, …

Potassium

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: DTE    Context: Soils worldwide are experiencing a depletion of potassium, a crucial nutrient essential for plant growth, jeopardizing global food security. A recent study proposes six actions to safeguard potassium supplies and food production. These include reviewing current potassium stocks, improving forecasting of price fluctuations, defining optimal potassium …

Blended Finance Facility for Climate Action

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB  Context: The Government of Goa and the Power Finance Corporation (PFC) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to support climate ambitions through a Blended Finance Facility, in partnership with the World Bank. This initiative aims to promote low-carbon, climate-resilient development.

Quasar

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: CNN  Context: Astronomers have discovered the brightest object in the universe, a quasar powered by the fastest-growing black hole on record. Initially mistaken for a star, the quasar, named J0529-4351, was found using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. It is located over 12 billion light-years away and …

Rubber sector

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB  Context: The financial assistance for India’s rubber sector has been increased by 23% for the fiscal years 2024-25 and 2025-26 under the ‘Sustainable & Inclusive Development of Natural Rubber Sector’ initiative. This enhancement aims to support various facets of the rubber industry, including the expansion of rubber planting …

Rhodamine-B

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: The sale of cotton candy (panju mittai) has been banned in Tamil Nadu due to the presence of cancer-causing chemicals, specifically Rhodamine-B, found in samples collected from stalls in Chennai. This chemical is considered substandard and unsafe under the Food Safety and Standards Act 2006. The immediate …

Water on the surface of an asteroid

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: LiveScience  Context: For the first time ever, scientists have detected water molecules on the surface of two asteroids, Iris and Massalia, revealing new insights into the distribution of water in our solar system. This discovery was made using data collected by NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), specifically …

OPENAI: Sora

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE    Context: OpenAI has introduced Sora, a new generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) model capable of converting text prompts into videos up to a minute long with maintained visual quality and adherence to user instructions. Sora can create complex scenes with multiple characters, accurate details, and vibrant emotions, though …

‘Sagar Aankalan’ guidelines 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB    Context: The Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways, introduced the ‘Sagar Aankalan’ guidelines during a stakeholders meet aimed at implementing MoUs from the Global Maritime India Summit 2023 (GMIS 2023). These guidelines aim to transform the performance assessment of Indian ports, focusing on benchmarking, efficiency, and …

Diphtheria

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: Financial Express  Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidelines for the clinical management of diphtheria, addressing the urgent need for evidence-based practices in response to outbreaks in Nigeria, Guinea, and neighbouring countries in 2023. The guidelines include recommendations on the use of Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT) and …

Sodium catalysed synthesis of carbon nanotubes

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: DST  Context: Researchers at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Science and Technology (IASST) have developed a ground-breaking method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly on glass substrates at a lower temperature of 750°C. This innovative approach, utilizing Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique (PECVD), eliminates the need for …

Kaji Nemu

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: Economic Times   Context: The Assam government has declared ‘Kaji Nemu’ (Citrus Limon) as the state fruit, highlighting its unique aroma, antioxidant properties, and significance in local cuisines. Known for its juiciness and medicinal properties, Kaji Nemu has attracted buyers from countries like the United Kingdom and the United …

State of the World’s Migratory Species report

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: UNEP  Context: The first-ever State of the World’s Migratory Species report, launched by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), reveals concerning trends.    Key Findings: Nearly half of migratory species listed under CMS are declining in population. More than one-in-five CMS-listed species are …

Micellar water

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH   Context: Micellar water is a popular product for removing makeup and sunscreen due to its effective cleansing properties. It contains micelles, clusters of molecules that are adept at removing oily substances.   How it works? Micelles are formed by surfactants, molecules with both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic …