Rip currents

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are collaborating on a project to monitor rip currents more effectively to enhance beach safety.    About Rip Currents: A rip current is a strong, narrow flow of water moving directly …

Category 6 Hurricanes

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Context: TH  Context: Some experts are proposing the creation of a new hurricane category, Category 6, to account for increasingly intense tropical storms driven by climate change. Currently, the Saffir-Simpson scale, with five categories, tops out at Category 5, but storms with winds exceeding 192 mph would qualify for the …

Underwater canyon

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TOI    Context: The Geological Institute of Israel has discovered a previously unknown underwater canyon near Cyprus, named Eratosthenes after the nearby underwater mountain. This canyon dates back to the Messinian Event approximately 5.5 million years ago. It measures about 10 kilometres wide and 500 meters deep and was …

Ionosphere

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: PIB  Context: Scientists from the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) have conducted decade-long ionospheric observations at Bharati station in Antarctica, revealing significant seasonal variations in ionospheric density. Despite the region experiencing 24 hours of sunlight in summer and complete darkness in winter, day-night ionospheric density variations were observed. The …

Iridescent clouds

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: The Guardian  Context: Rare iridescent clouds, known as nacreous clouds, were spotted over parts of Scotland, northern England, and the West Midlands recently. The clouds, resembling mother of pearl, are known for their pastel light reflections during sunset and sunrise. This phenomenon occurs as sunlight diffracts around tiny ice crystals …

Katabatic winds

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: WION  Context: A surprising phenomenon has been observed in the Himalayas, where ‘katabatic’ winds are triggered when high temperatures affect high-altitude ice masses. This leads to cold air blowing to lower-altitude areas, potentially slowing down the effects of the global climate crisis in some regions. The study reveals that …

Cyclone Michaung

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE  Context: Cyclone Michaung, heading towards the Andhra coast, is considered unusual due to its high intensity and timing in December, a month when storms in the North Indian Ocean typically don’t reach destructive levels. The cyclone, initially predicted to be a ‘tropical cyclone,’ was upgraded to a ‘severe’ …

Little Ice Age

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: PIB  Context: A new study of the Little Ice Age (LIA), a global climatic event from 1671-1942, challenges the traditional perception of it being uniformly cold and dry. The study, reconstructed the climate history of the Western Ghats in India between 1219 and 1942 using pollen-based vegetation data.   Key …

Pontus plate

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: Live Science   Context: Scientists have recently rediscovered the “Pontus plate,” a long-lost tectonic plate that disappeared about 20 million years ago. This plate was approximately a quarter the size of the Pacific Ocean and once existed beneath an ancient ocean known as the Pontus Ocean. The rediscovery of …

Salem sago

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: The Geographical Indication (GI) tag has been granted to Salem Sago (Javvarisi), which is expected to facilitate its entry into the international market.    About Salem Sago: Sago (also called Sabu dana) is a pearl-white product made from raw tapiocas, appearing as small hard globules or pearls. …

Heat index

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: TH  Context: Recently, Iran recorded a scorching heat index of 70 degrees Celsius (°C) in the coastal part of the country. The heat index, also known as apparent temperature, is a crucial indicator that measures how the temperature feels to humans based on a combination of air temperature and …

The Fujiwhara effect

Facts for Prelims (FFP)   Source: IE  Context: The western coast of the United States recently experienced Hurricane Hilary, which transformed into a sub-tropical storm upon reaching the US. This event led to the National Hurricane Centre (NHC) issuing its inaugural tropical storm watch for certain areas of Southern California. California had an exceptionally wet …

Tidal energy potential

Facts for Prelims (FFP)    Source: DTE   Context: The Standing Committee on Energy, through a newly presented report in the Indian Parliament, has requested the Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) to update them on initiatives and outcomes regarding the assessment of tidal, wave, and thermal energy potential in India. The committee …

Palaeo Proxies

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: TH Context: The article highlights the limitations of temperature estimates from before the invention of thermometers, based on “palaeo proxies.” It calls the claims that a specific day was the warmest in over 100,000 years as scientifically unfounded.   What are Palaeo proxies? Palaeo proxies, short for paleoclimate proxies, are …

Lithium Extraction

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: Business Line  Context: India has successfully extracted lithium from the mineral concentrate on a laboratory scale. The country has demonstrated its capability to develop technologies for the beneficiation of lithium ore to lithium mineral concentrate. The processing and refining methods for lithium ore can vary depending on the type of …

Gulf Stream

  Source: BBC  Context: A scientific study has raised concerns that the Gulf Stream system, known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), could collapse as early as 2025. The AMOC drives the Atlantic’s currents and plays a crucial role in determining Europe’s weather. If it were to collapse, it could lead to lower temperatures …

Parkachik Glacier in Ladakh

Facts for Prelims (FFP) Source: DST  Context: A new study conducted by scientists from the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology reveals changes in the Parkachik Glacier in Ladakh, India. The research also estimated the surface ice velocity of the glacier, showing a reduction of about 28% in the lower ablation zone between 1999-2000 and 2020-2021. …