- Target beneficiaries
- Benefits under PMMVY
- Key concerns
- Hurdles in implementation
- Need for special Attention
- Under – nutrition continues to adversely affect majority of women in India.
- In India, every third woman is undernourished and every second woman is anaemic.
- An undernourished mother almost inevitably gives birth to a low birth weight baby.
- When poor nutrition starts in – utero, it extends throughout the life cycle since the changes are largely irreversible.
- Owing to economic and social distress many women continue to work to earn a living for their family right up to the last days of their pregnancy.
- Furthermore, they resume working soon after childbirth, even though their bodies might not permit it, thus preventing their bodies from fully recovering on one hand, and also impeding their ability to exclusively breastfeed their young infant in the first six months.
- Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is a Maternity Benefit Programme that is implemented in all the districts of the country in accordance with the provision of the National Food Security Act, 2013.
- Providing partial compensation for the wage loss in terms of cash incentive s so that the woman can take adequate res t before and after delivery of the first living child.
- The cash incentive provided would lead to improved health seeking behaviour amongst the Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW& LM).
- All Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers, excluding PW&LM who are in regular employment with the Central Government or the State Governments or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.
- All eligible Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers who have their pregnancy on or after 01.01.2017 for first child in family
- The date and stage of pregnancy for a beneficiary would be counted with respect to her LMP date as mentioned in the MCP card.
Case of Miscarriage/Still Birth :
- A beneficiary is eligible to receive benefits under the scheme only once.
- In case of miscarriage/still birth, the beneficiary would be eligible to claim the remaining instalment(s) in event of any future pregnancy.
- Thus, after receiving the 1st instalment, if the beneficiary has a miscarriage, she would only be eligible for receiving 2nd and 3rd instalment in event of future pregnancy subject to fulfilment of eligibility criterion and conditionalities of the scheme.
- Similarly, if the beneficiary has a miscarriage or still birth after receiving 1 st and 2nd instalments, she would only be eligible for receiving 3rd instalment in event of future pregnancy subject to fulfilment of eligibility criterion and conditionalities of the scheme.
Case of Infant Mortality:
- A beneficiary is eligible to receive benefits under the scheme only once.
- That is, in case of infant mortality, she will not be eligible for claiming benefits under the scheme, if she has already received all the instalments of the maternity benefit under PMMVY earlier.
- Pregnant and Lactating AWWs/ AWHs/ ASHA may also avail the benefits under the PMMVY subject to fulfilment of scheme conditionalities.
The maternity benefits are available to all Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) except those in regular employment with the Central Government or State Government or Public Sector Undertaking or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.
Benefits under PMMVY
- Cash incentive of Rs 5000 in three instalments i.e. first instalment of Rs 1000/ – on early registration of pregnancy at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) / approved Health facility as may be identified by the respective administering State / UT, second instalment of Rs 2000/ – after six months of pregnancy on receiving at least one ante-natal check-up (ANC) and third instalment of Rs 2000/ – after child birth is registered and the child has received the first cycle of BCG, OPV, DPT and Hepatitis – B, or its equivalent/ substitute.
- The eligible beneficiaries would receive the incentive given under the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) for Institutional delivery and the incentive received under JSY would be accounted towards maternity benefits so that on an average a woman gets Rs 6000 / – .
- The scheme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under which cost sharing ratio between the Centre and the States & UTs with Legislature is 60:40 while for North-Eastern States & three Himalayan States; it is 90:10. It is 100% Central assistance for Union Territories without Legislature.
- The scheme has failed to reach at least 49% of all mothers who would have delivered their first child (an estimated total of 123 lakh for 2017 according to the researchers).
- Given the stipulated conditions, the scheme brings under its ambit 23% of all births and pays full benefits to a mere 14% of all births, which was at 270.5 lakh for 2017.
- Only 66% of pregnant women and 69% of nursing women knew about the scheme.
- Only 8% of pregnant women and 23% of nursing mothers received some benefits.
Hurdles in implementation:
- An application form of about 23 pages, a slew of documents such as mother-child protection card, Aadhaar card, husband’s Aadhaar card and bank passbook aside from linking their bank accounts with Aadhaar.
- The requirement to produce the husband’s Aadhaar card results in excluding women who may be living with men they are not married to, single mothers and those who may be staying at their natal home.
- Women must also have the address of their marital home on their Aadhaar card, which often results in newly weds being either left out or forced to go from door-to-door when pregnant and needing rest and care.
Need for special attention:
- Under-nutrition continues to adversely affect majority of women in India. In India, every third woman is undernourished and every second woman is anaemic.
- An undernourished mother almost inevitably gives birth to a low birth weight baby. When poor nutrition starts in-utero, it extends throughout the life cycle since the changes are largely irreversible.
- Owing to economic and social distress many women continue to work to earn a living for their family right up to the last days of their pregnancy.
- They resume working soon after childbirth, even though their bodies might not permit it, thus preventing their bodies from fully recovering on one hand, and also impeding their ability to exclusively breastfeed their young infant in the first six months.
- Services under ICDS
- Funding pattern
- The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme providing for supplementary nutrition, immunization and pre-school education to the children is a popular flagship programme of the government.
- Launched in 1975, it is one of the world’s largest programmes providing for an integrated package of services for the holistic development of the child.
- ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state governments and union territories.
- The scheme is universal covering all the districts of the country.
- The Scheme has been renamed as Anganwadi Services.
- To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years;
- To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
- To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
- To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and
- To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
- Children in the age group of 0-6 years
- Pregnant women and
- Lactating mothers
Services under ICDS
The ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services, viz.
- Supplementary Nutrition
- Pre-school non-formal education
- Nutrition & health education
- Health check-up and
- Referral services
Three of the six services viz. immunization, health check-up and referral services are related to health and are provided through National Health Mission and Public Health Infrastructure. The services are offered at Anganwadi Centres through Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and Anganwadi Helpers (AWHS) at grassroots level.
- All components of ICDS except Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) are financed through a 60:40 ratio (central : state).
- The Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) component was funded through a 50:50 ratio. The North East states have a 90:10 ratio.
Under SNP, beneficiaries are given hot meals along with take-home rations. For children, the quantum of rations and meals received depends on their malnutrition levels. SNP is provided for 300 days at the rate of Rs 8 per day for children and Rs 9.50 per day for pregnant and lactating mothers. Severely malnourished children are allocated Rs 12 per day. Adolescent Girls (11-14 years out of school) are allocated Rs 9.50 per day.
- Scheme components
- Adolescence is a crucial phase in the life of woman.
- At this stage, she stands at the threshold of adulthood.
- This stage is intermediary between childhood and womanhood and it is the most eventful for mental, emotional and psychological well being.
- The life-cycle approach for holistic child development remains unaddressed if adolescent girls are excluded from the developmental programmes aimed at human resource development.
- The Adolescent Girls (AG) Scheme, implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development under Umbrella Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), primarily aims at breaking the inter-generational life-cycle of nutritional and gender disadvantage and providing a supportive environment for self-development.
- The key objective of the scheme is to facilitate, educate and empower AGs so as to enable them to become self-reliant and aware citizens.
The scheme has the following objectives.
- Enable the AGs for self-development and empowerment.
- Improve their nutrition and health status.
- Promote awareness about health, hygiene, nutrition
- Support out of school AG to successfully transition back to formal schooling or bridge learning / skill training.
- Upgrade their home-based skills and life skills.
- Provide information/guidance about existing public services such as Primary Health Centers, Rural Hospitals/CHCs, Post Office, Bank, Police Station, etc.
- The target group for the scheme covers out of school adolescent girls (AGs) in the age group of 11 to 14 years.
- Scheme for Adolescent Girls was sanctioned in the year 2010 and was implemented in 205 districts across the country.
- Later, the expansion and universalisation of the Scheme for Adolescent Girls was done in additional 303 districts in 2017-18 and the remaining districts in 2018-19 with the simultaneous phasing out of Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY).
- Thus at present, all districts in the country are covered under Scheme for Adolescent Girls.
There are two major components under the Scheme ‐ Nutrition Component and Non Nutrition Component.
- Take Home Ration or Hot Cooked Meal for 11‐14 years Out of school girls – Nutrition Provision Rs. 9.50 per day (600 calories; 18‐20 gram of protein and recommended daily intake of micronutrients per day for 300 days in a year.). The financial norms will be Rs. 9.5/- per beneficiary per day for 300 days in a year. This would be inclusive of the cost of micronutrient fortification.
Non Nutrition Component
- For Out of school Adolescent Girls: (2 – 3 times a week) of 11 ‐ 14 years
- IFA supplementation
- Health check‐up and Referral services
- Nutrition & Health Education (NHE)
- Counseling / Guidance on family welfare, ARSH, child care practices
- Life Skill Education and accessing public services
- Overall Goal
- Target group
- Monitorable targets
- Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Logo The Census (2011) data showed a significant declining trend in the Child Sex Ratio1(CSR) between 0-6 years with an all time low of 918.
- The issue of decline in the CSR is a major indicator of women disempowerment as it reflects both, pre-birth discrimination manifested through gender biased sex selection, and post birth discrimination against girls (in form of their health, nutrition, educational needs).
- The principal factor behind the Child Sex Ratio being so adverse is the low Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB).
- Social construct discriminating girls on the one hand, easy availability, affordability and subsequent misuse of diagnostic tools on the other hand, have been critical in declining CSR.
- The strong socio-cultural and religious biases, preference for sons and discrimination towards daughters has accentuated the problem.
- Since coordinated and convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government launched the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) on 22nd January, 2015 at Panipat in Haryana.
- It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.
Celebrate the Girl Child & Enable her Education
The objectives of the Scheme are as under:
- To prevent gender biased sex selective elimination
- To ensure survival and protection of the girl child
- To ensure education and participation of the girl child
The 100 districts (45.9KB) have been identified on the basis of low Child Sex Ratio as per Census 2011 covering all States/UTs as a pilot with at least one district in each state. The three criteria for selection of districts are:-
- Districts below the national average (87 districts/23 states);
- Districts above national average but shown declining trend (8 districts/8 states)
- Districts above national average and shown increasing trend (5 districts/5 states- selected so that these CSR levels can be maintained and other districts can emulate and learn from their experiences).
- The scheme has further been expanded to 61 additional districts selected from 11 States/UT having CSR below 918. To get the list of additional districts covered, click here (70.4KB).
- Pan India Expansion of BBBP
- The Pan India Expansion of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) covering all 640 districts (as per census 2011) of the country was launched on 8th March 2018.
Young and newly married couples; Pregnant and Lactating mothers; parents
Youth, adolescents (girls and boys), in-laws, medical doctors/ practitioners, private hospitals, nursing homes and diagnostic centres
Officials, PRIs; frontline workers, women SHGs/Collectives, religious leaders, voluntary organizations, media, medical associations, industry associations, general public as a whole .
- Implement a sustained Social Mobilization and Communication Campaign to create equal value for the girl child & promote her education.
- Place the issue of decline in CSR/SRB in public discourse, improvement of which would be a indicator for good governance.
- Focus on Gender Critical Districts and Cities low on CSR for intensive & integrated action.
- Adopt Innovative Interventions/Actions by the districts as per their local needs, context and sensibilities.
- Mobilize & Train Panchayati Raj Institutions/Urban local bodies/ Grassroot workers as catalysts for social change, in partnership with local community/women’s/youth groups.
- Engage with Communities to challenge gender stereotypes and social norms.
- Ensure service delivery structures/schemes & programmes are sufficiently responsive to issues of gender and children’s rights.
- Enable Inter-sectoral and inter-institutional convergence at District/Block/Grassroot levels.
- Advocacy and Media Campaign on Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao
- Under the Scheme, a Nation-wide campaign was launched for celebrating Girl Child and enabling her education.
- The campaign aims at ensuring that girls are born, nurtured and educated without discrimination to become empowered citizens of this country with equal rights. A 360° media approach is being adopted to create awareness and disseminating information about the issue across the nation.
- Multi-Sectoral intervention in selected Gender Critical Districts worse on CSR
- Under the Scheme, the multi-sectoral action in selected 405 districts (including existing 161 districts) covering all States/UTs will focus on schematic intervention and sectoral actions in consultation with M/o H&FW & M/o HRD.
- Measurable outcomes and indicators will bring together concerned sectors, States and districts for urgent concerted multi-sectoral action to improve the CSR.
- Improve the Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) in selected gender critical districts by 2 points in a year.
- Reduce Gender differentials in Under Five Child Mortality Rate from 7 points in 2014(latest available SRS report) to 1.5 points per year
- At least 1.5 % increase per year of Institutional Deliveries.
- At least 1% increase per year of 1st Trimester ANC Registration.
- Increase enrolment of girls in secondary education to 82% by 2018-19.
- Provide functional toilet for girls in every school in selected districts.
- Improve the Nutrition status of girls – by reducing number of underweight and anemic girls under 5 years of age.
- Ensure universalization of ICDS, girls’ attendance and equal care monitored, using joint ICDS NHM Mother Child Protection Cards.
- Promote a protective environment for Girl Children through implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012.
- Train Elected Representatives/ Grassroot functionaries as Community Champions to mobilize communities to improve CSR and promote Girl’s education.
‘Sukanya Samriddhi Yojna’ is a small deposit scheme for girl child, launched as a part of the ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ campaign, which would fetch an attractive interest rate and provide income tax rebate.
- Interest rate on deposts : 8.40% w.e.f 1st Oct, 2019). Compounded annually with option for monthly interest pay-outs to be calculated on balance in completed thousands.
- As applicable under section 80C of the IT Act, 1961, the scheme has been extended Triple exempt benefits i.e. there will be no tax on the amount invested, amount earned as interest and amount withdrawn.
- Parents or legal guardians can open deposits on behalf of a girl children (including adopted girl child) for up to 2 daughters aged below 10.
- Three girl children, in case of twin girls as second birth or the first birth itself results in three girl children.
- Only one account can be opened in the name of a girl child.
- Minimum of Rs 250 of initial deposit with multiple of Rs 150 thereafter with annual ceiling of Rs.150000 in a financial year.
- Maximum period upto which deposits can be made 15 years from the date of opening of the account.
- The account shall mature on completion of 21 years from the date of opening of account or on the marriage of Account holder whichever is earlier.
Requirement of a birth certificate of the girl child
- Target Group
A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
- Trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation is an organized crime that violates basic human rights. India has emerged as a source, destination and transit for both in-country and cross border trafficking. The problem of trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation is especially challenging due to its myriad complexities and variation. Poverty, low status of women, lack of a protective environment etc. are some of the causes for trafficking.
- A multi sectoral approach is needed which will undertake preventive measures to arrest trafficking especially in vulnerable areas and sections of population; and to enable rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of the trafficked victims.
- Keeping the above issues and gaps in mind the Ministry has formulated a Central Scheme “Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of Trafficking for Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-Integration of Victims of Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation-Ujjawala”. The new scheme has been conceived primarily for the purpose of preventing trafficking on the one hand and rescue and rehabilitation of victims on the other.
Objective of the Scheme
- To prevent trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation through social mobilization and involvement of local communities, awareness generation programmes, generate public discourse through workshops/seminars and such events and any other innovative activity.
- To facilitate rescue of victims from the place of their exploitation and place them in safe custody.
- To provide rehabilitation services both immediate and long-term to the victims by providing basic amenities/needs such as shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment including counselling, legal aid and guidance and vocational training.
- To facilitate reintegration of the victims into the family and society at large
- To facilitate repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin.
Target Group/ Beneficiaries
- Women and children who are vulnerable to trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
- Women and children who are victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
- The implementing agencies can be the Social Welfare/Women and Child Welfare Department of State Government, Women‟s Development Corporations, Women‟s Development Centres, Urban Local Bodies, reputed Public/Private Trust or Voluntary Organizations.
- The organization must have adequate experience in the field of trafficking, social defence, dealing with women and children in need of care and protection, children in conflict with law, etc
The implementing organizations must fulfil the following eligibility conditions:
- The agency should be registered under law and must have a properly constituted Managing Body with its powers, duties and responsibilities clearly defined and laid down in its Constitution;
- The organization must not work for the profit of any individual or body of individuals;
- Its financial positions should be sound
- It should have facilities, resources, experience and personnel to initiate thescheme for which assistance is sought;
- Voluntary organisations should be registered with the NGO PS portal of NITI Aayog.
The Components Of Scheme And Pattern Of Assistance
The Scheme shall have the following main components:-
The implementing agencies may seek assistance for one or more the components as mentioned under the scheme. While applying for a particular component(s), the implementing agencies should provide justification for selecting the specific components and the location of projects.
- Implementing Agencies and Eligibility Criteria
- Components of the Scheme
- The scheme envisions a supportive institutional framework for women victims of difficult circumstances so that they could lead their life with dignity and conviction.
- It envisages that shelter, food, clothing, and health as well as economic and social security are assured for such women.
- It also envisions that the special needs of these women are properly taken care of and under no circumstances they should be left unattended or abandoned which could lead to their exploitation and desolation
Under the Scheme , Swadhar Greh will be set up in every district with capacity of 30 women with the following objectives:
- To cater to the primary need of shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment and care of the women in distress and who are without any social and economic support.
- To enable them to regain their emotional strength that gets hampered due to their encounter with unfortunate circumstances.
- To provide them with legal aid and guidance to enable them to take steps for their readjustment in family/society.
- To rehabilitate them economically and emotionally
- To act as a support system that understands and meets various requirements of women in distress.
- To enable them to start their life afresh with dignity and conviction.
- For big cities and other districts having more than 40 lakh population or those districts where there is a need for additional support to the women, more than one Swadhar Greh could be established. The capacity of Swadhar Greh could be expanded up to 50 or 100 on the basis of need assessment and other important parameters.
The benefit of the component could be availed by women above 18 years of age of the following categories:
- Women who are deserted and are without any social and economic support;
- Women survivors of natural disasters who have been rendered homeless and are without any social and economic support;
- Women prisoners released from jail and are without family, social and economic support;
- Women victims of domestic violence, family tension or discord, who are made to leave their homes without any means of subsistence and have no special protection from exploitation and/ or facing litigation on account of marital disputes; and
- Trafficked women/girls rescued or runaway from brothels or other places where they face exploitation and Women affected by HIV/AIDS who do not have any social or economic support.
- However such women/ girls should first seek assistance under UJJAWALA Scheme in areas where it is in operation.
- Women affected by domestic violence could stay up to one year.
- For other categories of women, the maximum period of stay could be up to 3 years.
- The older women above the 55 years of age may be accommodated for maximum period of 5 years after which they will have to shift to old age homes or similar institutions.
- Swadhar Greh facilities could also be availed by the children accompanying women in the above categories. Girls up to the age of 18 years and boys up to the age of 8 years would be allowed to stay in the Swadhar Greh with their mothers. (Boys of more than 8 years of age need to be shifted to the Children Homes run under JJ Act/ICPS.)
Implementing Agencies and Eligibility Criteria
Any of the following agencies/organizations can seek assistance under the Scheme:
- State Government agencies including Women Development Corporations established by the State Governments
- Central or State autonomous bodies.
- Municipal Bodies
- Cantonment Boards
- Panchayati Raj Institutions and Co-operative institutions
- Departments of Women and Child Development/Social Welfare of the State Governments which may construct Swadhar Greh and run them on their own or lease them to organization(s) having requisite experience for such period as deemed fit, for managing the operations under this scheme
- Public Trusts registered under any law for the time being in force
- Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) such as NGOs etc. having proven track record of working in the fields of women’s welfare/social welfare/ women’s education subject to the condition that such organization is registered under the Indian Societies Registration Act, 1860 or any relevant State Act;
The organization – Public Trusts and CSOs should meet the following criteria:
- It should be either recognized by the State/ UT Administration under existing Scheme/law or should be well known with the experience of working in the field for at least 3 years and its work should be reported to be satisfactory by the State Government/Union Territory Administration concerned,
- It should ordinarily have been engaged in the field of women’s welfare/social welfare/women’s education for a minimum period of two years prior to the request for grant-in-aid under the scheme,
- It should have facilities, resources, personnel and experience to undertake the management of such a project,
- Its financial position should be sound to take care of expenditure for a few months in case the grant is delayed.
- It should run the Swadhar Greh on a no – profit basis.
- The organization should have facilities like computers, internet connection etc. at Swadhar Greh.
Components of the Scheme
- Construction grant for construction of the building will be admissible to State Governments, Municipal Corporations, Cantonment Boards and Panchayati Raj Institutions only.
- Land for this purpose is to be provided by the implementing agency free of cost. The grant shall be subject to a ceiling of Rs.1,33,000/- per resident.
- Rent for Swadhar Greh, if run in a rented building.
- The maximum rent admissible for a Swadhar Greh intended for 30 residents is Rs. 50,000/- per month in grade ‘A’ cities, Rs. 30,000/- per month in
- grade ‘B’ cities and Rs. 18,000/- at other places.
- Assistance for recurring and non recurring expenditure for management of Swadhar Greh
- Provision for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, pocket expense for residents and children
- Provision of counseling, legal aid, vocational training and guidance.