Schemes under Ministry of Jalshakti

  1. Introduction
  2. Overview
  3. Coverage
  4. About scheme
  5. Scheme Envisages
  6. Components
  7. Priority Areas
  8. Implementation
  9. Expected results
  10. Expected impacts
  11. Expected outcome
  12. Status of groundwater

Introduction

Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL) is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Jal Shakti to improve ground water management through community participation

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on December 25, 2019 launched a scheme to conserve ground water in regions with low water tables.

Scheme overview

  • Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL) is an initiative for ensuring long term sustainability of ground water resources in the country.
  • The Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti is adopting a mix of ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ approaches in identified ground water stressed blocks in seven states, representing a range of geomorphic, climatic and hydrogeologic and cultural settings.
  • ATAL JAL has been designed with the principal objective of strengthening the institutional framework for participatory ground water management and bringing about behavioral changes at the community level for sustainable ground water resource management.
  • The scheme envisages undertaking this through various interventions, including awareness programmes, capacity building, convergence of ongoing/new schemes and improved agricultural practices etc.

Coverage

  • The scheme aims to improve ground water management through community participation in identified priority areas in seven States, viz. Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Implementation of the scheme is expected to benefit nearly 8350 Gram Panchayats in 78 districts in these States.

About Atal Bhujal Yojana:

  • It is a Rs.6000 crore World Bank approved Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • The funding pattern is 50:50 between Government of India and World Bank.
  • Aims to improve ground water management in priority areas in the country through community participation.

The scheme “envisages”:

  1. Community participation eg, “formation of Water User Associations”.
  2. Monitoring and dissemination of data.
  3. Water budgeting.
  4. Panchayat-level plans.
  5. Information, Education & Communication (IEC) activities.

Scheme components

ATAL JAL has two major components:

  1. Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building Component for strengthening institutional arrangements for sustainable ground water management in the States including improving monitoring networks, capacity building, strengthening of Water User Associations, etc.
  2. Incentive Component for incentivising the States for achievements in improved groundwater management practices namely, data dissemination, preparation of water security plans, implementation of management interventions through convergence of ongoing schemes, adopting demand side management practices etc.

Priority areas:

  • The priority areas identified under the scheme fall in the states of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • These States represent about 25% of the total number of over-exploited, critical and semi-critical blocks in terms of ground water in India.
  • They also cover two major types of groundwater systems found in India – alluvial and hard rock aquifers- and have varying degrees of institutional readiness and experience in groundwater management.

Implementation of the scheme:

  • Funds under the scheme will be provided to the states for strengthening the institutions responsible for ground water governance, as well as for encouraging community involvement for improving ground water management to foster behavioural changes that promote conservation and efficient use of water.
  • The scheme will also facilitate convergence of ongoing Government schemes in the states by incentivizing their focussed implementation in identified priority areas.

Expected results

ATAL JAL will result in

  1. Institutional strengthening for improving ground water monitoring networks and capacity building of stakeholders at different levels which will enhance ground water data storage, exchange, analysis and dissemination.
  2. Improved and realistic water budgeting based on an improved database and preparation of community-led Water Security Plans at Panchayat level.
  3. Implementation of Water Security Plans through convergence of various ongoing/new schemes of the Government of India and State Governments to facilitate judicious and effective utilization of funds for sustainable ground water management.
  4. Efficient use of available ground water resources with emphasis on demand side measures such as micro-irrigation, crop diversification, electricity feeder separation etc.

Expected Impact

  1. Source sustainability for Jal Jeevan Mission in the project area with active participation of local communities.
  2. Will contribute towards the goal of doubling the farmers’ income.
  3. Will promote participatory ground water management. Improved water use efficiency on a mass scale and improved cropping pattern;
  4. Promotion of efficient and equitable use of ground water resources and behavioural change at the community level.

Expected outcomes:

The implementation of the scheme is expected to have several positive outcomes like better understanding of the ground water regime, focused and integrated community based approach for addressing issues related to ground water depletion, sustainable ground water management through convergence of on-going and new schemes, adoption of efficient water use practices to reduce ground water use for irrigation and augmentation of ground water resources in targeted areas.

Status of groundwater in India:

  • Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) is regulating ground water development in States/UTs.
  • As per the assessment of dynamic ground water resources of country carried out jointly by CGWB and State Ground Water Departments, out of the total 6584 numbers of assessment units (Block/ Taluks/ Mandals/ watershed/ Firkka), 1034 units have been categorized as ‘Over-exploited’.
  • This may be due to increase in population, rapid urbanization & industrialization and other related factors.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  1. Introduction
  2. About the Scheme
  3. Key Features
  4. Implementation
  5. Benefits of the Mission
  6. Need for and significance of the mission.

Introduction

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) is being implemented under the State Water and Sanitation Mission, which is already functional, and different sources, including rainwater harvesting, have been tapped.
  • The Mission was announced in August 2019.

About the Jal Jeevan Mission:

  • JJM envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
  • It is under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.

It also encompasses:

  • Prioritizing provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
  • Providing functional tap connection to Schools, Anganwadi centres, Gram Panchayat buildings, Health centres, wellness centres and community buildings.
  • Technological interventions for removal of contaminants where water quality is an issue.

Key features

  1. It aims to create local infrastructure for rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household waste water for reuse in agriculture.
  2. The Jal Jeevan Mission is set to be based on various water conservation efforts like point recharge, desilting of minor irrigation tanks, use of greywater for agriculture and source sustainability.
  3. The Jal Jeevan Mission will converge with other Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives of sustainable water supply management across the country.

Implementation:

  • The Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component of the mission.
  • JJM looks to create a jan andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.
  • The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

Benefits of the mission:

  1. Household pipeline water supply.
  2. Clean and drinkable water.
  3. Recharge of groundwater level.
  4. Better local infrastructure.
  5. Less water-borne diseases.
  6. Less water wastage.

Need for and significance of the mission:

  1. India has 16% of the world population, but only 4% of freshwater resources.
  2.  Depleting groundwater level, overexploitation and deteriorating water quality, climate change, etc. are major challenges to provide potable drinking water.
  3.  It is an urgent requirement of water conservation in the country because of the decreasing amount of groundwater level.
  4. Therefore, the Jal Jeevan Mission will focus on integrated demand and supply management of water at the local level.

Namami Gange Programme

  1. Introduction
  2. About the Scheme
  3. Implementation
  4. Funding
  5. Main pillars
  6. Need
  7. Threats
  8. Challenges

Introduction

It is an umbrella programme which integrates previous and currently ongoing initiatives by enhancing efficiency, extracting synergies and supplementing them with more comprehensive & better coordinated interventions

About Namami Gange Programme

Implementation:

  • The program is being implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program Management Groups (SPMGs).
  • NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council (set in 2016; which replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NRGBA).
  • National Ganga Council (NGC) was Created in October 2016 under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016.
  • It is Headed by Prime Minister.
  • It replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA).
  • NGC would have on board the chief ministers of five Ganga basin states—Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal—besides several Union ministers and it was supposed to meet once every year.

Namami Gange Programme

Funding:

It has a Rs. 20,000-crore, centrally-funded, non-lapsable corpus and consists of nearly 288 projects.

Main Pillars of the Namami Gange Programme are:

  1. Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
  2. River-Surface Cleaning
  3. Afforestation
  4. Industrial Effluent Monitoring
  5. River-Front Development
  6. Bio-Diversity
  7. Public Awareness
  8. Ganga Gram

Why we need “Namami Gange” programme?

  • River Ganga has significant economic, environmental and cultural value in India.
  • Rising in the Himalayas and flowing to the Bay of Bengal, the river traverses a course of more than 2,500 km through the plains of north and eastern India.
  • The Ganga basin – which also extends into parts of Nepal, China and Bangladesh – accounts for 26 per cent of India’s landmass.
  • The Ganga also serves as one of India’s holiest rivers whose cultural and spiritual significance transcends the boundaries of the basin.
  • If we are able to clean it, it will be a huge help for the 40 per cent population of the country.

What are the pollution threats to Ganga?

  • Rapidly increasing population, rising standards of living and exponential growth of industrialization and urbanization have exposed water resources to various forms of degradation.
  • The deterioration in the water quality of Ganga impacts the people immediately.
  • Ganga has become unfit even for bathing during lean seasons.
  • The impacts of infrastructural projects in the upper reaches of the river Ganga raise issues.

Challenges ahead:

  • Sewage treatment.
  • Restoring the flow.
  • Sludge control.
  • Cost overruns.
  • Governance glitches

About NMCG

  • National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is the implementation wing of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA).
  • At national level NMCG is the coordinating body and is being supported by States Level Program Management Groups (SPMGs) of UP, Uttarakhand, Bihar and West Bengal which, are also registered as societies under Societies Registration Act, 1860 and a dedicated Nodal Cell in Jharkhand.

The area of operation

  • The area of operation of NMCG shall be the Ganga River Basin, including the states through which Ganga flows, as well as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
  • The area of operation may be extended, varied or altered in future, by the Governing Council to such other states through which major tributaries of the river Ganga flow, and as the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) may decide for the purpose of effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga.

The aims and objectives of NMCG

  • To ensure effective abatement of pollution and rejuvenation of the river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach to promote inter-sectoral co-ordination for comprehensive planning and management and
  • To maintain minimum ecological flows in the river Ganga with the aim of ensuring water quality and environmentally sustainable development.

Vision

  • The Vision for Ganga Rejuvenation constitutes restoring the wholesomeness of the river defined in terms of ensuring “Aviral Dhara” (Continuous Flow”), “Nirmal Dhara”(“Unpolluted Flow”), Geologic and ecological integrity.

Key Functions

To achieve the objectives, NMCG shall carry out the following key functions namely:

  1. Implement the work programme of National Ganga River Basin Authority(NGRBA).
  2. Implement the World Bank supported National Ganga River Basin Project.
  3. Coordinate and oversee the implementation of projects sanctioned by Government of India under NGRBA.
  4. Undertake any additional work or functions as may be assigned by MoWR,RD &GJ in the area of conservation of river Ganga.
  5. Make rules and regulations for the conduct of the affairs of the NMCG and add or amend, vary or rescind them from time to time.
  6. Accept or to provide any grant of money, loan securities or property of any kind and to undertake and accept the management of any endowment trust, fund or donation not inconsistent with the objectives of NMCG.
  7. Take all such action and to enter all such actions as may appear necessary or incidental for the achievements of the objectives of the NGRBA.

Ganga River Basin Management Plan

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)

The Plan is being prepared with the objectives of taking comprehensive measures for restoration of the wholesomeness of the Ganga ecosystem and improvement of its ecological health, with due regard to the issue of competing water uses in the river basin.

The wholesomeness of the river can be grasped in terms of four defining concepts:

  • Aviral Dhara (Continuous Flow)
  • Nirmal Dhara (Unpolluted Flow)
  • Geologic Entity
  • Ecological Entity

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)

Gobardhan Scheme

  1. About the Scheme
  2. Aim
  3. Implementation
  4. Support
  5. Benefits

Introduction

  • The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) comprises two main components for creating clean villages –
    • Creating open defecation free (ODF) villages and
    • Managing solid and liquid waste in villages.
  • With over 3.5 lakh villages, 374 districts and 16 States/UTsof the country being declared ODF, the stage is set for ODF-plus activities, including measures to enhance Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).
  • The GOBAR-DHAN scheme, with its focus on keeping villages clean, increasing the income of rural households, and generation of energy from cattle waste, is an important element of this ODF-plus strategy.

About the Scheme

  • Ministry of Jalshakti dept of Drinking Water & Sanitation has launched the GOBAR (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources) – DHAN scheme.
  • The scheme is being implemented as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • It was launched in 2018.

Aim

  1. The scheme aims to augment income of farmers by converting biodegradable waste into compressed biogas (CBG).
  2. The initiative aims at attracting entrepreneurs for establishing community-based CBG plants in rural areas.
  3. The scheme aims to positively impact village cleanliness and generate wealth and energy from cattle and organic waste.
  4. The scheme also aims at creating new rural livelihood opportunities and enhancing income for farmers and other rural people.

Implementation

  • The programme will be implemented using SLWM funding pattern of SBM-G Guidelines.
  • The total assistance under SBM (G) for SLWM projects is worked out on the basis of total number of households in each GP, subject to a maximum of Rs 7 lakh for a GP having up to 150 households, Rs.12 lakh up to 300 households, Rs. 15 lakh up to 500 households and Rs.20 lakh for GPs having more than 500 households.
  • Funding for SLWM project under SBM (G) will continue to be provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 60:40 as per the existent formula.
  • Only those Gram Panchayats which have not availed SLWM funds under SBM(G) are eligible to receive the financial assistance under GOBAR-Dhan scheme, subject to the limits of guidelines.
  • However, States shall have the flexibility to provide additional funds to any GP based on viability under the scheme.

Support from the scheme

There are 4 Models for implementation of the projects. As per GOBAR-DHAN guidelines, the Model wise incentive is as under:

Model-A (Gram Panchayat):

Rs. 7 lakh, Rs. 12 lakh, Rs. 15 lakh and Rs. 20.00 lakh for a GP having households up to 150, 300, 500 and more than 500 respectively.

Model-B (SHG Federation):

Rs. 7 lakh, Rs. 12 lakh, Rs. 15 lakh and Rs. 20.00 lakh for a GP having households up to 150, 300, 500 and more than 500 respectively.

Model-C (Bulk Waste Generator/ Entrepreneur) is

Rs. Rs. 7 lakh, Rs. 12 lakh, Rs. 15 lakh and Rs. 20.00 lakh for a GP having households up to 150, 300, 500 and more than 500 respectively.

Model-D (Any Eligible Enterprise):

No incentive

Benefits of the scheme:

  1. Helpful for the country as India is home to the highest cattle population in the world, close to 300 million in number, with a daily output of 3 million tonnes of dung.
  2. Encourage farmers to consider dung and other waste not just as a waste but as a source of income.
  3. Benefits to the rural people.
  4. It will be easier to keep the village clean and sanitized, livestock health will improve and farm yields will increase.
  5. Increase self-reliance in energy utilized for cooking and lighting.
  6. Provides a stable fuel supply in the market for oil companies and accessible credit in the market through government schemes and banks for entrepreneurs.