The civilian deaths were in single digits (two) in 2020 for the first time since 1999. The deaths of security forces’ personnel also came down by 75%.
The highest–2,644–number of insurgents belonging to various outfits surrendered to security forces in 2020.
Because of the improvement in the security situation, the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958, has been removed completely from Meghalaya and Tripura and its application has been reduced in Arunachal Pradesh.
All four factions of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) disbanded themselves in 2020, 34 years after it was formed to seek a separate Bodoland state from Assam. This came following the signing of a memorandum of settlement of the outfits with the Centre.
Almost all major insurgent groups, including the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN)and its factions, have signed ceasefire agreements with the government.
Regional diplomatic cooperation between India and neighbouring countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar have denied insurgents safe havens.
Analysts say, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s return to power in Bangladesh in 2009 was the game-changer for the insurgency. Sheikh Hasina made sure that Bangladesh’s soil is not used by the extremists and their leaders were handed over to India.
Myanmar army is now backing India against insurgents because it needs the Indian help in fighting [its insurgent group] the Arakan Army.
The main armed movement– NSCN-Isaac Muivaah–and all its factions are now involved in peace talks.
Nagas not fighting the government is the primary reason for the significant reduction in incidents.
A lot of development push has gone into [the region] in the last several years and large-scale migration of youth from the Northeast to the mainland has also played a role in reducing the recruitment pool for insurgent groups.
There are more recruitment rallies for the Indian army in the Northeast than probably in Punjab and other regions.