Extremism can be defined as any ideology considered to be far outside the mainstream attitudes of a society or to violate common moral standards. It means an ideology deflected from the mainstream of common moral standards which can be perceived as good or bad depending upon the political and philosophical values.

An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants)



North East India (NEI) has been witnessing insurgency since 1950s and there is no end in sight. Even though some states in the NEI have remained peaceful after ending insurgencies, overall, the situation in the region is not conducive to peaceful living and corresponding prosperity.


Historical background and genesis

  • The British had generally followed a policy of non-interference in the NEI. However, the newly independent India in 1947 had the formidable task of uniting various princely states not only of NEI but of the country as a whole.
  • The integration of these distinct cultures of NEI into the “mainstream” was generally met with resentment. The insurgencies started with Naga Hills. Under the leadership of Phizo, the Naga National Council (NNC) declared independence from India on 14 Aug 1947.
  • Despite efforts at political settlement by various leaders of that time, the unrest did not die. As a result, Indian Army (IA) was ordered to undertake Counter-Insurgency (CI) operations in Jan 1956, after the Government of India (GoI) declared Naga Hills as a disturbed area.
  • Thereafter, various regions proactively voiced their demands for freedom/independence, and initiating insurgencies in the region.
  • Major outfits fuelling insurgency in the northeast were United Liberation Front of Assam (U.L.F.A.), National Democratic Front of Bodoland (N.D.F.B.) who laid down their arms after Bodo peace accord in 2020, Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA) etc.


Change in India’s anti-insurgency operation needed

  • The use of necessary military force to counter the aggressiveness of insurgents.
  • While military operations are being enforced, the government must have ideas and initiatives ready, with plans for infrastructure upgrades that would address the basic grievances of the alienated people, who took to arms in the first place.
  • Finally, when military operations are reduced to a minimum and the ground situation is under control with the implementation of such initiatives, then ‘talks’ must be initiated to address the political demands of the locals, with fixed timelines for political deliverables.
  • Above all, to successfully battle an insurgency, all major governmental agencies must be on the same wavelength.
  • A wise mix of socio-economic development and political settlement are the pillars of an everlasting peace in the NEI. Winning the hearts and minds should be the cornerstone for achieving conflict resolution in NEI.


Way forward

  • Enhance communication and connectivity, infrastructure improvement for better integration of the region with the mainland.
  • Stringent law and fast criminal justice system for quick disposal of insurgent’s attack cases.
  • Greater coordination between central forces and state forces for better tactical response.
  • Greater cultural interaction with the rest of the country and socio-economic development that includes a holistic inclusive development.
  • Decentralization with alertness, improving administrative efficiency, pro-people governance and coping up with regional aspirations must be the immediate need of the hour.
  • Strengthening of local self-government with additional financial and decision making power would promote development by making them stakeholders in development.
  • Apart from this, discrimination related to residence, food, clothing, marriage and employment must be removed.
  • Roping in more NGOs and other groups that work with these tribals to help them get more skills and opening new vistas of employment based on their skills can help nip alienating feeling among them.



The insurgencies of NEI have continued for the past seven decades despite various efforts by GoI for a permanent solution. However, with the older generation passing away and the new generation having little interest in insurgencies, the time is ripe to hammer out a long-term strategy for elimination of residual insurgencies.


India has been dealing with three variants of the Internal Security challenge for decades and each has its own complexities — a proxy war and terrorism in Kashmir, sub-national separatist movements in the Northeast and the Naxal-Maoist insurgency (aka LWE) in the Red Corridor.

The left-wing extremism (LWE) or Naxal insurgency in India originated in a 1967 uprising in Naxalbari, West Bengal by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). They are the group of people who believe in the political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong. The Naxals strongly believe that the solution to social and economic discrimination is to overthrow the existing political system.

The latest ambush by Maoist rebels on a large contingent of security personnel in Bastar is yet another well-planned and ruthlessly executed attack in a long line of similar attacks in the Maoist-infested regions of central India. Nearly 22 jawans were martyred in the attack.

This tragic incident is a major and embarrassing setback to the IS (internal security) capability of India at many levels and highlights the challenge that LWE (left-wing extremism) continues to pose.

LWE organizations are the groups that try to bring change through violent revolution. They are against democratic institutions and use violence to subvert the democratic processes at ground level.

The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas of states such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

Causes of left-wing extremism in India

  1. Inequitable development:
      • The failure of land reforms especially land redistribution after independence.
      • Socio-economic inequities, unemployment, despair about the future.
      • Dishonest and self-serving dominant groups.
      • Political deprivation leading to hopelessness or a sense of powerlessness.
      • Lack of title to public land cultivated by the landless poor.
      • Governance deficit in the remote parts of Red Corridor regions.
      • Lack of food security – corruption in the Public Distribution System (which are often non-functional).
      • Disruption of traditional occupations and lack of alternative work opportunities.
  1. Displacement of people: Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals.
      • Forced Displacements caused by mining, irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
      • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensation or rehabilitation
  1. Discrimination against tribals: Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
      • Non-regularisation of traditional land rights under FRA, 2006.
      • Hasty rejections of land grants to tribals.

Measures and change in strategy needed to solve Maoism

Home Ministry came up with the strategy of Samadhan. It is a strategy to frame short term and long-term policies to tackle LWE. It includes: S- Smart Leadership; A- Aggressive Strategy; M-Motivation and Training; A- Actionable Intelligence; D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas); H- Harnessing Technology; A- Action plan for each Theatre; N- No access to Financing.

In lieu of this, governments must pro-actively tackle left wing extremism.

  1. Modernizing the police force: The scheme focuses on strengthening police infrastructure by construction of secure police stations, training centres, police housing (residential) and equipping police stations with required mobility, modern weaponry, communication equipment and forensic set-up etc.
      • On the administrative side, changes include separation of investigation from law and order, specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes are initiated in several states.
      • Various technological reforms are pushed including modernization of the control room, fast tracking Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System (CCTNS), pushing for National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and pushing for incorporation of new technology into policing.
  1. Social Integration: State Governments have surrender and rehabilitation policy, while the Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE affected States.
      • Additional incentives are given for surrendering with weapons/ammunition.
      • The surrenderers are also imparted vocational training with a monthly stipend for a maximum period of 36 months.
      • Skill Development: Skill Development in 34 Districts affected by Left Wing Extremism” under implementation from 2011-12 aims to establish ITIs and Skill Development Centres in LWE affected districts.

  1. Infrastructure Development: Road Connectivity, communication needs to be rapidly scaled up in LWE affected districts. Eg: Mobile towers being set up in remote areas.
  2. Major counter-insurgency measures in states
      • Andhra Pradesh established elite force called Greyhounds to successfully crack down on naxal leaders. It also squashed mass organisation activities through civilian “vigilante” groups that had been encouraged through the surrender and rehabilitation package.
      • West Bengal government implemented confidence building measures with the people living in the Maoist infested Jangalmaha region. It created a linkage between people and the institution.
      • Odisha and Chhattisgarh trained many local tribal youths as Special Police Officers against Maoist insurgency.
      • Bihar had set up a 400-member special task force and Special Auxiliary Police for counter insurgency operations. Currently the naxal influence has come down from 22 districts to 4.
      • Maharashtra created a district level force called as C-60 Commando.
      • Salwa Judumwas a militia that was mobilised and deployed as part of anti-insurgency operations in Chhattisgarh, aimed at countering Naxalite violence in the region.
  1. SMART Policing: Smart policing paradigm promotes integration & interoperability of information & communication systems.
      • Broadly, smart policing involves interventions incorporating application of evidence-based and data-driven policing practices, strategies and tactics in order to prevent and control crime.
      • Recruit specialized personnel: Specialized crimes require specialized approach and personnel to deal with them. There should be core technical team to handle modern technology related crimes.
      • Community policing improves interface with citizens and makes police more sensitive. E.g. (i) Janamaithri Suraksha Padhathi, Kerala (ii) Friends of Police Movement (FOP), Tamil Nadu (iii) Suraksha Setu – Safe City Surat Project
      • Improve communication network: There should be sharing of information & knowledge to improve the functioning of police force.
      • Better Surveillance and Monitoring with standardisation, deployment and integration of private security surveillance system.
      • It promotes pro-active policing by preventing criminal activity through enhanced police visibility and public engagement.

Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Division

  • The LWE Division of Ministry of Home Affairs implements security related schemes aimed at capacity building in the LWE affected States.
  • The Division also monitors the LWE situation and counter-measures being taken by the affected States.
  • The States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are considered LWE affected, although in varying degrees.

Need of the hour

  • Central and State governments, the administration and the security establishment need to recognize that the movement cannot be approached from a purely law and order point of view.
  • The process of improving the conditions of the poor and the tribals clearly need to be speeded up if the movement is to be effectively checked.
  • Winning the hearts and minds of the tribal population and other marginalised groups will lie at the core of the counter-insurgency strategy.
  • Development of road and rail infrastructure will not only enhance economic growth and development but will also help in countering Maoist propaganda.
  • The improved road connectivity will also have a multiplier effect on the effectiveness of the security forces in carrying out operations.
  • Providing incentives and alternate life support system to those surrendered.


An ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy which offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal. Through a holistic approach focusing on development and security related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.


  • The Maoist insurgency is more of a law-and-order problem than an ideological one. It is always so in areas in the throes of insurgency of any kind.
  • One shouldn’t overstate the tribal support for Maoists being ideological rather than being a largely forced one or one that has to do with their daily struggles of life during which the state hardly plays an assuaging role.
  • On the contrary, the state inflicts or tends to inflict what many non-Maoist and even anti-Maoist activists call state violence.
  • The tribals still feel unsafe when the police enter their villages during ANOs.
  • Clearly, support for the Maoists, forced or voluntary, is a product of state’s failure to reach out to them rather than being one born out of some commitment to the Maoist ideology.
  • Interviews by journalists, including this writer, with several former high-ranking Maoist cadres have underscored their naive understanding about the basic tenets of Communist or Maoist thought.


There is only one way out and it is that the government of India and the Maoists should sit across the table and sort out their differences. The harsh truth is that the tribals are today sandwiched between the two warring groups of State Police and Central Armed Police Forces on the one hand and the Maoist guerrillas on the other. The government of India is today in a position for reconciliation. Such a gesture would not be an admission of weakness. The government today holds the upper hand and, therefore, any such move would be considered magnanimous. There has been much blood-letting. It is time to heal the Naxal wounds, time to usher in a new dawn.


Female Maoists are a substantial 60% of Maoist cadres and occupy almost all operational and tactical positions responsible for sustaining the Maoist rebellion in India. For a security threat constituting such a sizeable number of female combatants, embracing the woman question should be central to conflict resolution.


The umbrella grievance of women in the movement is that of gender inequality, which worsens problems of sexual assault, police brutality, atrocities against Scheduled Caste/Tribe (SC/ST) communities, and economic inequality.


Rise of women cadres in left-wing extremism:


  • Many ex-Maoist women, like Krishna Bandyopadhyay, admit Maoism’s appeal was rooted in its commitment to women’s rights.
  • The demand for gender equality is so potent that male Maoists themselves cannot escape it. In one instance, female combatants compelled the CPI (Marxist-Leninist) to admit its own patriarchal failings within the party and the overall insurgency.
  • The most gendered motivator, distinguishing female experience, is sexual assault. Crimes against women are more rampant in Maoist-affected areas than in other parts of the country.
  • Security personnel are known to use body searches, casual molestation, custodial rape, torture, threats of harm upon loved ones, etc., as warfare tactics against combatants and even civilian women.
  • National Crime Records Bureau data shows that Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha alone registered 84,938 crimes against women in 2019.
  • Women face sexual harassment from the state as well as insurgents, with no avenues to seek justice. Many find it nearly impossible to even register a first information report with the police.
  • Evidently, police brutality and impunity pushes women towards Maoism, creating a cycle of violence.
  • Therefore, many women perceive Maoism as relief from poverty and unemployment.


Addressing gender injustice in fight against left wing extremism

  • Despite sustaining the uprising, female Maoists are rarely at the table during peace talks and ceasefire negotiations.
  • Even within the ranks, they face sexual assault and gendered division of roles such as cooking, cleaning and nursing.
  • Maoists are not immune to patriarchal attitudes and behaviour, suggesting a scope for the state to re-enter the discourse through effective gender-sensitive policies that offer women of the region a better alternative than joining the cadres.
  • The need of the hour is for the state to adequately address women’s ground realities in the region that push them toward radicalization.
  • State and Centre must collectively work to empower women, provide them security and education, finally bridging the developmental deficit.



Failing to address women’s grievances around patriarchy renders the state’s counter-terrorism response inadequate. The Indian state’s priority must be to diminish motivations, not demean them. The driving factors should not only be understood as incentives behind violence, but potential solutions for peaceful outcomes.



Of all kinds of migration, illegal migration has become the most volatile and contentious issue in Indian polity today because of the socio-political conflicts it has brought in its wake. Illegal migration comprises of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.


From the eastern borders, Bangladeshi illegal immigration has changed the demography of northeast especially Assam. More recently, there has been an influx of Rohingyas who are prosecuted in the Myanmar. From the northern borders, mainly persecuted religious minorities from Pakistan and Afghanistan have come to India. Often it has posed a security threat for India, especially in Kashmir where militants infiltrate through Line of Control.


Issue of illegal immigration into India

  • Increasing pressure on land and mounting unemployment in Bangladesh due to steep rise in population. Porous India-Bangladesh border of 4,096 kms is also another major factor.
  • Stagnant Economic Growth and Lack of Employment: Industrialisation in India’s neighbouring countries has not been able to keep pace with the growing labour force and as a result, the unemployment rate is declining. The working-age people who are unable to find jobs in the country look outside for employment opportunities.
  • Illegal voters: Most of the Bangladeshi immigrants have got their names enlisted in the voting list illegally, thereby claiming themselves as citizens of the state.
  • Religious Discrimination: In Bangladesh, the already discriminatory land laws were further manipulated by vested interest groups and corrupt administrators to dispossess and alienate the Hindus from their own land and property. Religion has a particular effect in the case of the Rohingya
  • Pakistan’s state sponsored terrorism: Militants and people are infiltrating into Kashmir to create unrest and keep India embroiled in the decades long issue posing the biggest security threat.
  • Issue of terrorism: Pakistan’s ISI has been active in Bangladesh supporting militant movements in Assam. It is alleged that among the illegal migrants there are also militants, who enter into Assam to carry out the terrorist activities.


Measures needed

  • Diplomatic Effort: India has to make diplomatic effort to get Bangladesh to cooperate as illegal migration cannot be solved unless origin country cooperates. Sharing of digital database of its citizens will make it easier.
  • Better Border Management: Fencing, construction of border roads and proper management of border will make a difference. Like engaging in proactive patrolling of the India-Bangladesh and India- Myanmar international borders.
  • Unique Identification Number (UID) scheme: Compilation of data is likely to reduce the comfort level of fresh illegal migrants.
  • Bar from Voting rights: Bangladeshi who are already in could be allowed to work but should not be allowed to vote and this will diminish their ability to influence government decisions by being a political force.
  • Use of regional forums: Forums like BIMSTEC can be used to discuss issues like illegal migration from neighbouring countries and garnering support and coordination from the members.
  • Dispute resolution: Government should resolve pending border disputes with the neighbouring countries, as they later become matters of national-security threat.
  • No diversion of security forces: The border-guarding force should not be distracted from its principal task and deployed for other internal security duties. For eg- Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), a force specifically trained for India- China border should not be used in the Naxalite-infested areas.
  • Involvement of army: It is felt that the responsibility for unsettled and disputed borders, such as the LoC in J&K and the LAC on the Indo-Tibetan border, should be that of the Indian Army while the BSF should be responsible for all settled borders.



Illegal migration into India has continued unabated since independence. As lakhs of undocumented migrants fleeing either politico-religious persecution or economic deprivation crossed the border and settled in the border states of India, it created conflict between the host population and the immigrants. Thus, it is important to tackle the issue of illegal migration very carefully in order to safeguards India’s interests.

  • Sense of Isolation, Deprivation and Exploitation: Distance from New Delhi and meagre representation in the Lok Sabha has further reduced the vox populi being heard in the corridors of powers, leading to more disillusionment in the dialogue process, thereby making call of the gun more attractive.
  • Demographic Changes: The influx of refugees from former East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) into Assam led to a dramatic change in the demographic landscape of the region.
  • Lack of Economic Development: GoI’s economic policies have also fuelled resentment and insecurity amongst the people. Due to various factors, the development of NEI has lagged behind thereby resulting in lack of employment opportunities. Thus, the youth are easily lured by various insurgent groups in order to earn easy money.
  • Internal Displacement: Internal displacement is also an ongoing problem. From the 1990s to the start of 2011, over 800,000 people were forced to flee their homes in episodes of inter-ethnic violence in western Assam, along the border between Assam and Meghalaya, and in Tripura.
  • External Support: There is ‘increasing evidence’ of China’s revival of its ‘covert offensive’ in the region. Pakistan’s Special Services Group (SSG) also trained the Naga guerrillas in the 1960s through their bases in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).


Way forward

  • Enhance communication and connectivity, infrastructure improvement for better integration of the region with the mainland.
  • Stringent law and fast criminal justice system for quick disposal of insurgent’s attack cases.
  • Greater coordination between central forces and state forces for better tactical response.
  • Greater cultural interaction with the rest of the country and socio-economic development that includes a holistic inclusive development.

Decentralization with alertness, improving administrative efficiency, pro-people governance and coping up with regional aspirations.

  • Insurgency-related incidents in the north-eastern (N-E) states dipped by 80% and civilian deaths by 99% in 2020 compared to 2014, according to the Union home ministry data.
  • The civilian deaths were in single digits (two) in 2020 for the first time since 1999. The deaths of security forces’ personnel also came down by 75%.
  • The highest–2,644–number of insurgents belonging to various outfits surrendered to security forces in 2020.
  • Because of the improvement in the security situation, the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958, has been removed completely from Meghalaya and Tripura and its application has been reduced in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • All four factions of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) disbanded themselves in 2020, 34 years after it was formed to seek a separate Bodoland state from Assam. This came following the signing of a memorandum of settlement of the outfits with the Centre.
  • Almost all major insurgent groups, including the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) and its factions, have signed ceasefire agreements with the government.
  • Regional diplomatic cooperation between India and neighbouring countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar have denied insurgents safe havens.
  • Analysts say, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s return to power in Bangladesh in 2009 was the game-changer for the insurgency. Sheikh Hasina made sure that Bangladesh’s soil is not used by the extremists and their leaders were handed over to India.
  • Myanmar army is now backing India against insurgents because it needs the Indian help in fighting [its insurgent group] the Arakan Army.
  • The main armed movement– NSCN-Isaac Muivaah–and all its factions are now involved in peace talks.
  • Nagas not fighting the government is the primary reason for the significant reduction in incidents.
  • A lot of development push has gone into [the region] in the last several years and large-scale migration of youth from the Northeast to the mainland has also played a role in reducing the recruitment pool for insurgent groups.
  • There are more recruitment rallies for the Indian army in the Northeast than probably in Punjab and other regions.



Without development processes, there is no organic end to the causes of discontent, unrest and extremism. Development and security together lay the foundations for sustainable peace. It is a truism that underdevelopment often creates the conditions for insurgency and spread of extremist ideologies among the people, who perceive that their needs are not being taken care of by the government. While it has been the policy of governments around the world today to emphasise on “inclusive development”, there are always groups in every state who feel alienated because they perceive that they are left out of the developmental efforts. Such perceptions coupled with inefficient and corrupt governance create an ideal condition for extremism and militancy. More than lack of development, it is the perception of injustice, mis-governance and inability of the system to engage the disaffected lot that lead people to violence and extremism.


Extremism hindrance to development

As security is the primary infrastructure of economic activities and social stability and certainty about future are the essential prerequisite of investment, the persistent insurgency atmosphere has been the most important contributor to economic stagnation of the region.

  • The first casualty of insurgency has been its already weak infrastructure especially, its transport sector.
  • The subversive activities of the insurgents’ damage rail tracks, cause accidents leading to loss of life and property, create terror among the travelers and throw the entire system out of gear.
  • The next important target of the insurgents is the resource-based industries like petroleum and tea which form the core of the modern organized sector in the region.
  • Oil pipelines are often blown up by the insurgents, tea gardens are targeted for extortion and sometimes, tea garden executives are abducted.
  • The attack of the insurgents on tea and petroleum is bound to convey negative signal to the prospective investors. The potential of using gas reserve of the region will also be seriously hampered because of insurgency situation.
  • The third, but first from long term point of view, victim of insurgency in the region is environment. On the one hand, insurgents damage forests by taking shelter there and on the other, anti-insurgency operations also lead to denudation of forests.
  • The insurgency has aggravated the problem to such an extent that development workers of both the Government and NGOs are utterly discouraged from going to the hilly and rural areas as they face constant extortions and threats of abduction or death.
  • It is extremely difficult to build up rural infrastructure like roads and communication links, power grid, irrigation arrangements etc. It is also equally difficult to build up and administer schools, hospitals, agricultural extension centres etc in such a condition.
  • Consequently, insurgency is pushing the backward areas of the region to the darkness of greater underdevelopment and is acting as a retarding force rendering disservice to rural poor especially the indigenous people whose causes, they are supposed to uphold.


Developmental issues related to rise and spread of extremism:

Developmental issues which pertain to the spread of extremism are linked to lack of access to basic resources to sustain livelihood.

  • Forest policy:
    • In the name of development, habitat of principal adivasi communities were declared reserve forests & in accordance with Forest conservation Act 1980, no forest land can be diverted to non-forest use without permission.
    • Rights of primitive forest dwellers were restricted resulting in losing access to land.
    • Mass resentment leading to extremist activities.
  • Land alienation:
    • 40% of rural households have no land or less than half an acre of land, increased marginal landholdings, no land reforms, insecurity and exploitation of tenants and unrest leading to extremism.
    • Land acquisition for Special Economic Zone (SEZ) again deprived the poor of their lands. Loss of food production as a huge block of productive lands acquired for SEZ; major impact in livelihood resource, leading to conflict.
  • Displacement & rehabilitation:
    • Displacement/ forced eviction of people occurs due to developmental projects such as irrigation, industrial projects, mining projects, power plants etc. It can be physical, emotional or cultural.
    • Tribal people are most prone to displacement because tribal areas are rich in mineral resources such as Orissa, Jharkhand. This impacts multidimensional trauma on them leading to serious consequences.
  • Labour, unemployment and wages:
    • Unemployment and insecurity of livelihood are growing source of dissatisfaction and anger among youth, both in urban and rural areas.
    • Minimum wages for agriculture work are not implemented, increased share of unorganized workers in unorganized sector, no effective coverage of labour welfare laws.
    • Hence this multifaceted form of exploitation in the absence of any developmental propaganda forms the major cause of spread of extremism.
  • Moreover, tourism industry in this development scenario is posing a great threat to the existing tribal life which is interwoven with ecology. The introduction of foreign influence and commercialisation is triggering the process of disintegration of tribal society leading to extremist activities.

Thus, the above causes show that underdevelopment and socio-economic lacunae lead to extremism.


Way Forward

  • Effective implementation of legislation:
    • PESA, MGNREGA, Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers acts must be implemented effectively.
  • Land Related Measures:
    • A serious effort must be made to continuously implement the land ceiling issues for distribution amongst the most vulnerable section of the landless poor.
    • Land should be acquired by government for SEZ by paying proper compensation to the farmers.
    • Land tribunals or fast track courts must be set up for speedy disposal of land ceiling cases. The loopholes in the respective state ceiling laws must be corrected.
  • Basic amenities and Infrastructure:
    • Failure to provide infrastructure and services as per national norms is one of the much discriminatory manifestations of governance in extremism affected areas. Basic services to standards among the people in these areas to be given top priority.
  • Governance Issues:
    • Areas in central India where unrest is prevailing covers several states like Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and parts of Maharashtra.
    • State interventions both for development and for law and order are fairly low. Local populations present in the tribal areas are being exploited by the rich people. Government should take necessary action in protecting these people.
    • The basic steps required in the direction include establishment of credibility and confidence of government, keeping a continuous vigil for fulfilment of people’s vision, effective protection, peace and good governance; sustainable development with equity in tribal areas will make extremism low in tribal areas.
  • Livelihood Security:
    • should strengthen the subsidiary and supportive activities in horticulture, poultry, fisheries, animal husbandry under the strict guidelines of ministry of agriculture through establishment of quality infrastructure & efficient market linkages at the village level.
    • Universalize basic social services to standards amongst the people of extremist affected areas so that the discriminatory manifestations of governance can be removed.
  • Institutional arrangements for centre-state cooperation:
    • Since problems in formulating a counter-Extremist policy as well as in dealing with the issue on a day-to-day basis are sourced to the lack of centre-state cooperation, a permanent institutional mechanism in the form of a coordination centre can be established to thrash out emerging differences.
    • A coordination centre does currently exist within the Ministry of Home Affairs, but requires the active participation of state representatives to ensure smoother coordination



Inequalities between classes have increased over the years which act as source of unrest. Indian Constitution in article 39 mandates states to prevent concentration of wealth in few hands but policy makers often ignore this resulting into two dimensions: BHARAT and INDIA. Only when adivasis and marginalized groups are taken care of both these worlds won’t merge. Structural violence causes much of violence. While not condoning radical violence, an honest response to extremism therefore must begin by ameliorating the structural violence in the society.


American troops are set to withdraw from Afghanistan, raising security concerns beyond South Asia. The resurgence of Taliban is a huge concern not only for Kabul but for regions in South Asia and beyond.

Implications for India

  • India is wary of the future of the Afghan government without the support of the US military as it will trigger a geopolitical flux in the region.
  • The withdrawal from Afghanistan will only bring challenges for the Indian Subcontinent as the US military presence kept a check on the radically extremist forces and created the possibility of a conducive environment for India to work with Afghanistan.
  • The withdrawal can lead to a surge in international and regional terrorism, re-emergence of Taliban’s influence on Pakistan and the political instability it will create in the region.
  • India’s larger concerns are about the resurgence of Taliban, which can undoubtedly reassure and incite the extremist elements in Kashmir and other parts of India through India-focused militant groups such as Laskhar- e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, which are believed to have relocated to Afghanistan in large numbers.
  • Unlike the United States, both India and Pakistan share a geographical proximity to Afghanistan, therefore any political instability in the region will affect both the countries.