Principles of Biotechnology


1.Genetic Engineering: techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material to introduce into host organism and thus change the phenotype of organism

(NOTE:The genotype is a set of genes in DNA responsible for unique traits or characteristics while the phenotype is the physical appearance or characteristic of an organism.)


2.BIOPROCESS Engineering: Maintenance of sterile (microbial contamination-free) ambience in chemical engineering processes to enable growth of only the desired microbe/eukaryotic cell in large quantities for the manufacture of biotechnological products like antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, etc.



In order to attain a phenotype , desired gene should be sent in to host but this gene can not replicate by it must be integrated with recipient DNA to replicate, once it integrates with host or recipient DNA it will reproduce itself and also transferred to future generation. This replication of identical copies are also called as cloning.


What is Recombinant DNA?

Recombinant DNA technology is the joining together of DNA molecules from two different species. The recombinant DNA molecule is inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry.


Steps involved in Recombinant DNA

(i) identification of DNA with desirable genes;

(ii) introduction of the identified DNA into the host;

(iii) maintenance of introduced DNA in the host and transfer of the DNA to its progeny.

Recombinant DNA Technology requires various tools like vector, host and enzymes such as restriction enzymes, ligases, polymerases, etc.


Process involved

1.Cut the desired sequence of DNA through Enzyme called Restriction Enzyme

2.Use another Enzyme called Ligase to join DNA with plasmid(vector which can transfer to host DNA)

3.Plasmid reaches to host DNA ,integrates and then creates multiple copies