United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity, defines Biotechnology “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”. And “Biological resources” includes genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations, or any other biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use or value for humanity. India has become the world’s 12th biggest biotechnology economy having the second highest number of USFDA-approved plants. Biotechnology will help developing countries accomplish things that they could never do
Conventional biotechnology is a biotechnology practice conducted by using simple methods and instruments, without genetic manipulation. It has been done since thousands of years ago to produce many kinds of products,such as beer, wine, tuak, sake, yogurt, bread, cheese, soy sauce, tempe,tapai, and oncom.
Modern biotechnology is a biotechnology practice developed with genetic manipulation technique, in which transfer of genetic material(transfer of gene) from one living organism to the other occurs. Through this technique, humans can control the production according to his desire. Forexamples, the production of pest and disease resistant plants, imperishable fruits, and cattle which are able to produce more milk.
In the genetic manipulation process, organisms whose body containsforeign genes are called transgenic organisms. They can be transgenic plants,transgenic animals, and transgenic bacteria.
- Principles of Biotechnology
- Types of Biotechnology
- Applications of Biotechnology in various fields
- Gene Editing
- What is CRISPR-Cas9?
- Gene Therapy
- Mitochondrial Gene Therapy
- Genome Sequencing
- Genome Sequencing Initiatives by India
- Stem Cells
- GM Crops
- DNA Technology Regulation Bill, 2019
- Ethanol blending programme in India