The doctrine of separation of powers is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution, although not specifically mentioned. The legislature cannot pass a law violating this principle. The functions of the three organs are specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
- Article 50: This article puts an obligation over the State to separate the judiciary from the executive. But, since this falls under the Directive Principles of State Policy, it is not enforceable.
- Article 123: The President, being the executive head of the country, is empowered to exercise legislative powers in certain conditions.
- Articles 121 and 211: These provide that the legislatures cannot discuss the conduct of a judge of the Supreme Court or High Court. They can do so only in case of impeachment.
- Article 361: The President and Governors enjoy immunity from court proceedings.
There is a system of checks and balances wherein the various organs impose checks on one another by certain provisions.
- The judiciary has the power of judicial review over the actions of the executive and the legislature.
- The judiciary has the power to strike down any law passed by the legislature if it is unconstitutional or arbitrary as per Article 13 (if it violates Fundamental Rights).
- It can also declare unconstitutional executive actions as void.
- The legislature also reviews the functioning of the executive.
- Although the judiciary is independent, the judges are appointed by the executive.
- The legislature can also alter the basis of the judgment while adhering to the constitutional limitation.
Checks and balances ensure that no one organ becomes all-too powerful. The Constitution guarantees that the discretionary power bestowed on any one organ is within the democratic principle.