Despite the recommendations of numerous committees and commissions, and the continuous efforts being made to bring about the changes in education, Govt. of India was not very happy with the progress of education in the country.
It was felt necessary to have a comprehensive policy of education covering all the sectors of education. Hence, the Education Commission was set up by the Government of India in 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari, to advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects.
The Commission set twelve Task Forces for different educational sectors like School Education; Higher Education; Technical Education; Agricultural Education etc. and seven Working Groups to study, in detail, many of specific problems and to report.
The Reports of the Task Forces and the Working Groups enabled the Commission to examine some of the important issues in depth and in detail.
The Commission perceived education as the major tool of social reconstruction and making people aware about their partnership with government in nation building and development. The Commission wanted people to participate in national development. This is the base of the report of Kothari Commission.
Following are some of the major goals for education as visualized by the Commission and the recommendations to achieve them:
- Education for increasing productivity: a) Make science a basic component of education and culture. b) Introducing S.U.P.W. as an integral part of general education. c) Vocationalising education to meet the needs of the industry of agriculture. d) Improving scientific and technological research and education in universities
- Education for accelerating process of modernization: a) Adopting new methods of teaching b) Development of attitudes, values and essential skills like Self study. c) Educating people of all strata of society. d) Emphasizing teaching of vocational subjects and science. e) Establishing universities of excellence in the country.
- Educating for promoting social and national integration: a) Introducing common school system of public education. b) Developing all modern Indian languages. c) Taking steps to enrich Hindi as quickly as possible. d) Encouraging and enabling students to participate in community living.
- Education for inculcation of national values: a) Introducing moral, social and spiritual values. b) Providing syllabus giving information about religions of the world. c) Encouraging students to meet in groups for silent meditation. d) Presenting before students high ideas of social justice and social service.
Kothari Commission Report is a learned critique of Indian education, and even today, after half a century of years, is still regarded as the most in-depth study of primary and secondary education in Indian history