- K.Gokhale, the moderate Congress Leader, being aware of the intention of the British Government, made attempts to draw the attention of the people of India as well as in England towards the condition of Education
- Hence, he introduced a Bill to make elementary education free, compulsory, for children aged between 6 and 10 years. Further, Gokhale’s effort had a far-reaching consequences in the subsequent period
- However, the British Government rejected the Gopal Krishna Gokhale’s Bill and refused to recognise the principle of compulsory education for paucity of funds; instead they promised to extend grants for the widest extension of primary education on a voluntary basis and passed the Resolution on Education Policy on February 21, 1913
The Government Resolution on Education Policy, 1913
- The Resolution advocated three cardinal principles of educational policy:
- The curricula of primary and secondary schools should be made more practical and useful
- Facilities of higher education should be provided in India so that Indian students may not have to go abroad
- Instead of increasing the number of existing institutions their standard should be raised
- Also in the resolution, the government refused to take up the responsibility of compulsory education, but accepted the policy of removal of illiteracy.
- It urged provincial governments to take early steps to provide free elementary education to the poorer and more backward sections.
- A university, it was decided, was to be established in each province and teaching activities of universities were to be encouraged
- The universities were to be relieved of the responsibility of granting recognition to high schools
- The Policy also provided for sufficient expansion of lower primary schools with a simultaneous opening of upper primary schools.
- It proposed to streamline inspection and supervision, appoint trained teachers, subsidize Maktabs and Pathshalas, improve school facilities, and encourage girl’s education
- The subjects of industrial importance were to be included in the curriculum
- However, the First World War delayed the implementation of many recommendations set out in the Resolution