The next important Muslim ruler who had made his influence in Indian History know was Muhammad Ghori. After the death of Mahmud of Ghazni, for nearly hundred and fifty years there was no Turkish invasion on India.
The Ghoris started as vassals of Ghazni but became independent after the death of Mahmud. Taking advantage of the decline of the Ghaznavid empire, Muizzuddin Muhammad popularly known as Muhammad Ghori brought Ghazni under their control. Having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India. Unlike Mahmmud of Ghazni, he wanted to conquer India and extend his empire in this direction.
Political Condition of India on the Eve of Ghori Invasion
- Nearly 150 Years had lapsed after the last invasion of Mahmud in 1027. Unfortunately, Indian did not learn any useful political lesson from Ghaznis rides and they failed to develop foresight necessary to meet the new challenge. There was not a single remarkable change in the condition of India expect changes in ruling dynasties and territories.
- Politically India was divided into many kingdoms both in North and South. The North India witnessed the rule of many Rajput princes.
- The chief among them were
- Prithviraj Chauhan was ruling over Delhi and Ajmer
- Jayachandra was the ruler of Kanuaj
- the Solanki king Mularaja II was ruling over Gujarat
- the Sena king Lakshmanasena was ruling over Bengal etc.
- They indulged in constant internecine warfare which ultimately weakened all the Rajaput states.
- Muhammad Ghori’s first invasions were on the Multan and fortress of Uch, with a view to bring back the Muslim states of India and conquered it easily in 1175.
- In 1178, he attacked on Anhilwara in Gujarat,but was defeated by its king Mularaja II.
First Battle of Tarain or Thaneshwar 1191.
- In 1191 Muhammad attacked and captured Bhatinda, a part of Prithviraj dominion. This led Muhammad to come into direct clash with Prithviraj Chauhan one of the most powerful Rajput rulers.
- The enemies met each other in the battle field at Tarain, 80 miles from Delhi.
- Muhammad Ghori was defeated in the battle and also wounded in the arm. The
Muslim army was routed and battle was completely won over by the Rajputs.
Second Battle of Tarain 1192
- Muhammad was not dishearten and prepared his army for the next attack to avenge his defeat with much strategy and power
- Prithviraj also organized Hindu confederacy to resist to Muhammad
- In 1192 both the armies met again in the same battle field Tarain. This time Muhammad defeated Prithviraj and killed.
- The second battle of Tarain is well known as one of the turning points in Indian The battle opened the way for further conquests of India by the Muslims. Ajmer and Delhi were occupied by Muhammad.
- After the battle of Tarain, Muhammad appointed Qutubuddin Aibak, one of his slaves, as the Viceroy of the Indian provinces. He consolidated the Indian conquests of his master, conquered Meerut, Bulandhahar, Aligarh etc. made Delhi as the capital in 1193.
- BATTLE OF CHANDAWAR 1194 In 1194 Muhammad Ghori led another expedition against Jayachandra of Kanuaj. The battle between Muhammad and Jayachandra took place near Chandawar on the river Yamuna between Eatwah and Kanuaj. King Jayachandra was defeated and killed in the battle.
- After successful campaigns Muhammad rested the responsibility of consolidating the conquests in India on his Governor Qutubuddin Aibak.
- Muhammad-bin-Baktiyar Khilji, a general of Ghori, led a daring military expedition against Bihar and Bengal. In between 1202 – 1205 he attacked Odantapuri and plundered Buddhist Monastery, destroyed the university of Nalanda and Vikramasila and defeated Lakshamansena of Bengal.
- His greatest achievement was the establishment of Turkish empire in India which added a fresh chapter to the Indian history.
- He was assassinated by the Khokars on the bank of rivers Indus in 1206, while engaging his evening prayers.
- Qutubuddin Aibak, one of the slaves of Muhammad Ghori became the master of his Indian provinces and laid foundation for Delhi Sultanate in 1206