Kakatiyas (12th -14th Century) :

 Political History :

  • The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled most of eastern Deccan region comprising present day Telangana andAndhra Pradesh, and parts of eastern Karnataka and southern Odisha between 12th and 14th centuries.
  • Their capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
  • Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutasand Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries. They assumed sovereignty under Prataparudra I in 1163 CE .
  • Ganapati Deva (r. 1199–1262) significantly expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavariand Krishna
  • Ganapati Deva was succeeded by Rudramma Devi(r. 1262–1289)
  • Marco Polo, who visited India sometime around 1289–1293, made note of Rudramma Devi’s rule.
  • Alauddin Khalji invaded Kakatiya kingdom in 1303AD. This brought hard times for kakatiyas.
  • Finally in 1323 Prince Jaunakhan (muhammed bin Tughlaq) defeated Prataparudra Deva and annexed their kingdom.
  • Prince Jauna changed the name of Kakatiyas capital Oragallu as Sultanpur.
  • Prataprudra Deva committed suicide near Narmada river while coming to Delhi as a captive of prince Jauna.


  • Sanskrit and Telugu literature flourished during this period.
  • Jayapa senani has composed Geeta Ratnavali, Nritya Ratnavali and Vadya Ratnavali.
  • Andhra natyam and perinisivatandavam was classical dance forms of this period.


  • Kakatiyas followed trikuta model in their temple constructions.
  • In this model temples are contructed for Shiva ,Vishnu and Surya in a triangular way.
  • Floating bricks and welcoming archways were silent features in Kakatiya structures.
  • The scenic Pakhal lake in Warangal was built by Ganapathi Deva.
  • The 1000 pillar temple in Warangal was built during the Kakatiya Rule and is another example to the exquisite Kakatiya Architecture
  • The iconic Kakatiya Thoranam was built by Rudramadevi’s father in the 12th Century. This ornate arch is said to have many similarities with the gateways at the Sanchi Stupa and is also the emblem of Telangana.
  • The Koh-i-Noor Diamond, which is now among the jewels set in the British Crown, was mined and first owned by the Kakatiya Dynasty.
  • Ramappa temple is best specimen in Kakatiya temples.

UNESCO World Heritage Site (2021)

The iconic Ramappa Temple showcases the outstanding craftsmanship of great Kakatiya dynasty.

  • Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple is a masterpiece of Kakatiyan-era architecture, employing engineering innovation in the form of floating bricks, sand-box foundations, selection of building material and masterful stone sculpting.
  • The Ramalingeswara temple, also known as the Ramappa temple, was named after its chief sculptor Ramappa. It is one of the very few temples in the world named after its sculptor.
  • According to Telangana Tourism, “The mediaeval Deccan temple dates back to 1213 AD and was built under the patronage of the Kakatiya ruler Kakati Ganapathi Deva under the authority of his Chief Commander Rudra Samani at Ranakude in the Atukuru province.”
  • Aside from its architecture and elaborate carvings on the temple’s walls, pillars, and ceilings, the most notable feature of this temple is that it was constructed using bricks that are so light that they can float on water.
  • The temple is built on a 6-foot-high platform with a cruciform plan in a valley and took nearly 40 years to complete.
  • The chamber of the temple is crowned by a ‘shikharam’ and surrounded by ‘pradakshinapatha’.