Literature during Mughals

  • Persian, Sanskrit and regional languages developed during the Mughal rule.
  • Persian was the language of administration in Mughal Empire.
  • The greatest contribution in the field of literature during the Mughal rule was the development of Urdu as a common language of communication for people speaking different dialects.
  • Babur wrote his autobiography, Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki language.
  • This autobiography gives details of flora and afauna in India.

Mughal empire

– Illustrations in the Baburnama regarding the fauna of India.

  • Babarnama(translation of tuzuk I baburi) was written in Persian by Abdul Rahim Khan.
  • Abdul Fazl has written Akbarnama (history of Akbar) and Ain-i-Akbari(administration book).
  • Jahangir hasitten his autobiography as Tuzuk-i-jahangiri.
  • Mutamid khan has written biography of Jahangir as Iqbalnamah-i-Jahangir.
  • Shahjahan’s biography padshanamah was written by two author. They were Abdul Hamid lahori and Inayat Khan. Inayat khan wrote shahjahan namah.
  • Persian literature was enriched by translations of Sanskrit works.
  • The Mahabharata was translated under the supervision of Abul Faizi, brother of
    Abul Fazal and a court poet of Akbar.
  • Dara Shikoh translated the Bhagavat Gita and Upanishads into the Persian language. His most famous work, Majma-ul-Bahrain.
  • Badauni was bitter critic of Akbar. He translated Mahabharata into Persian as Razanamah.
  • Regional languages such as Bengali, Oriya, Rajasthani and Gujarathi had also developed during this period.
  • From the time of Akbar, Hindi poets were attached to the Mughal court. The most influential Hindi poet was Tulsidas, who wrote the Hindi version of the Ramayana, the Ramcharitmanas.
  • Jaganath Pandithraya , court poet of Shahjahan has written two Sanskrit books Ganga Lahari and Rasagangadharam.

Mughal Empire

– Abul Fazal presenting Akbarnama to Akbar