The Senas


  • The Deopara Prashasti, commissioned by Lakshmana Sena, describe the Senas as migrant Brahmaksatriyas from Karnata
  • Copper plates found in Adilpur.

Political history:

  • Senas ruled from Bengal in duing 11th and  12th century.
  • The rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka.
  • Vijayasena expelled Madanpala (last ruler of Pala dynasty) and started Sena dynasty rule. He was the real founder of Sena kingdom.
  • His son Ballala Sena (1160-1178) introduced the social reforms in Bengal known as Kulinism.
  • Ballalsena was succeeded by Lakshamanasena.
  • Lakshmana sena was the greatest of this dynasty.
  • Towards the close of his reign (Lakshmansena) , he became weak. There was sign of disintegration within his kingdom. Muhammad  Bhaktiyar Khalji,  gave the final blow to the Sena kingdom (1204 AD).


  • The rule of the Senas in Bengal is usually connected with the emergence of orthodox Hinduism in a Hindu-Buddhist society which for long had enjoyed the peaceful coexistence of the two religions resulting in an atmosphere of amalgam of the two. The onslaught on the Buddhists in Bengal is believed to have started in this period, which resulted in large scale Buddhist migration to the neighbouring countries.
  • Bhuddism declined in India after Sena’s rule. Many bhuddist universities were plundered by Bhaktiyar Khalji.(Vikaramshila, Odantapuri, Nalanda).


  • The Sena rulers were also great patrons of literature. During the Pala dynasty and the Sena dynasty, major growth in Bengali was witnessed
  • The Sena period also witnessed the development of Sanskrit literature.
  • Lakshmanasena patronized Pancharatnas in his court.
    • Jayadeva, Sarana, Umapathi, Dhoyi, Govardhana
  • Jayadeva has composed the romantic devotional songs known as His famous book was Gita Govindam.
  • Jayadeva was founder of Radha Krishna cult.
  • Dhoyi has written Pavandutam.


  • Architectural style in Sena dynasty is continuation of  the style of PALAS. No evident change in architectural form can be seen.

Senas are famous for building hindu temples, monastaries. Dhakeshwari temple in Dhaka, Bangladesh is example of temples built during Sena period.