1. Jalaluddinn Khalji (1290-96) :
- Jalaluddin khalji was Turk , but settled in Afghanistan.
- Jalal-ud-din won many battles and even in old age he marched out against the Mongol hordes and successfully halted their entry into India (1292).
- He gave his second daughter to Mongol leader Ulugh khan in marriage.
- Alauddin Khalji was son in law (also nephew ) of Jalaluddin. Alauddin was governor of Kara.
- Alauddin invaded Devagiri kingdom and procured lot of wealth.
- Devagiri was first south Indian state to receive Islamic invasion.
- Later Alauddin murdered his uncle Jalaluddin and ascended the throne.
2. Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316):
- Alauddin was the most imperialistic sultan.
- His military expeditions were
- Devagiri (1296, 1307, 1314),
- Ranthambhor (1301),
- Chittor (1303) and
- Malwa (1305)
- He defeated Waghela karnadeva of Gujrat and married his wife Kamaladevi.
- For the sake of Rani Padmini Alauddin attacked Chittore.
- Chittore was captured but Padmini committed Jauhar.
- Alauddin’s Chittore campaign was described in the book Padmavath written by Malik Muhammed Jayasi.
- He framed regulations to control the nobles .
- Malik Kafur , basically an eununch became chief commander of
- Malik kafur started south Indian campaign. He defeated
- Ramachandradeva- Devagiri
- Prathaprudradeva- Kakatiya
- Veera Bhallala 3 – Hoysala
- Veera and Sundara – Pandya
- Malik kafur erected victory pillar in Rameswaram .
- Alauddin inscribed the title sikandar-e-saini on his coins(sikandar means Alexander)
- Ala-ud-din nominated his eldest son Khizr Khan, as his successor. However, Ala-ud-din’s confdant at that time was Malik Kafur. So Malik Kafur himself assumed the authority of the government. But Kafur’s rule lasted only thirty-fve days as he was assassinated by hostile nobles.
- After the death of Malik kafur Alauddin’s son Qutbuddin Mubarak came to power.
- During the times of Qutbuddin Devagiri Yadava kingdom was annexed into Delhi sultanate.
- Qutbuddin was murdered by his prime minister Nasiruddin Khushru shah, who became the last sultan in Khalji dynasty.
- Later kushru shah was dethroned by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in the year 1320.
Administrative Reforms :
- Alauddin was strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central government.
- He believed in theory of divine right.
- He seperated religion from politics.
- He took various measures for prevention of rebellions, such as restricting matrimonial alliance within nobels, prohibiting secret meetings and parties, appointing spies to keep eye on them and preventing the interference of ulemas in administration.
- Ala-ud-din was the frst Sultan to pay his soldiers in cash.
- As the soldiers were paid less, the prices had to be monitored and controlled. Moreover, Ala-ud-din had to maintain a huge standing army. In order to restrict prices of essential commodities, Ala-ud-din set up an elaborate intelligence network to collect information on black-marketing and hoarding.
- Shahana-i-mandi was the incharge of markets, who kept eye on prices of essential commodities.
- Alauddin maintained strong and huge standing army.
- He introduced the system of branding of horses (dagh) and maintenance of detailed register of soldiers to prevent false musters and corrupt practices.
- He paid the salaries in cash.
- Ariz-i-Mumalik was incharge of appointment of soldiers.
- Alauddin created separate department for revenue as Diwan-i- Mustkharaj.
- He introduced scientific method for land measurement for the assessment land revenue
- Jaziya was imposed on non muslims.
- He imposed heavy taxes on sardars, jagirdars and ulemas.
- Alauddin constructed siri city and Alai darwaja.