Slave Dynasty

Slave Dynasty (1206-1290AD)

Political history :

1. Qutb-ud-din Aibak(1206-1210):

  • Aibak was slave of Mohammedd Ghori. In Arabic  language slave means Mumluk.Hence dynasty established by Qutbuddin Aibak is called slave dynasty or mumluk dynasty.
  • He tried for internal consolidation only. His rule was for only four years.
  • He constructed Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi in commeroation of Islam’s victory in India.
  • He constructed Adhai din ka-Jhompra mosque in Ajmer.
  • He started the construction of Qutub minar , dedicated to sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bhaktiyar kaki.

2. Iltutmish (1210-1236):

  • His original name was Samshuddin Iliyas.
  • He was son in law of Qutbuddin Aibak.
  • His mongol policy saved India from attack of Chengis Khan.
  • He shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
  • He completed the construction of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque and the Qutb Minar.
  • He started feudalistic system Iqtha/ iqthadari
  • He created pact of fourty muslim nobels as
  • He started coinage system of Delhi Sultanate
    • Tanka- silver coin
    • Biranz- bronze coin
    • Jittal- copper coin
  • He nominated his daughter Raziya as his successor .

3. Razia Sultana (1236-40):

  • Raziya ascended the throne of Delhi by removing her brother Ruknuddin Feroz.
  • First muslim women ruler in Indian history.
  • She appointed an African(absynnian) slave Yakuth as incharge of cavalary.
  • Her rule created differences with Chahalgani( 40 nobels)
  • She married Altuniya (governor of Bhatinda).
  • Later both Razia and Altuniya were killed by coup of Chalghani.

4. Nasiruddin (1246-66):

  • After the death of Razia, Chalghani(40 nobels) became powerfull.
  • However, after six year Balban succeeded in putting Nasiruddin Mahmud, a
    younger son of Iltutmish, as Sultan.
  • Nasiruddin was interested in philosophy, he was inefficient to rule .
  • He was dethroned by his prime minister Balban.

5. Ghiyasuddin Balban(1266-86): 

  • Balban was greatest in slave dynasty
  • He aboilished Chahalghani .
  • He knew that the real threat to the monarchy was from the nobles called the Forty(chahalghani). He was convinced that only by enhancing the power and authority of the monarchy he could face the problems. According to Balban the Sultan was God’s shadow on earth and the recipient of divine grace.
  • Balban introduced Persian customs and traditions such as sizda, paibas(kissing feet of sultan) , jamnibas(kissing hands), Naurauz( Persian new year).
  • He established defence department known as Diwan-i-Ariz.
  • Balabn took severe action on robbers and dacoits and made roads of Delhi safe to travel.
  • Balban dealt Mongol issue with blood and iron policy . he strengthened western frontiers. He sent his son Mahamud to fight against Mongols on western frontiers.
  • Mahamud died fighting with Mongols.
  • Saddened by this tragedy, Balban fell ill and died in 1286.
  • After his death kalimullah and Qaimus became sultan.
  • Qaiqubad/Kaiqubad was the last sultan in slave dynasty.
  • After few year Qaiqubad became paralytic. He was removed from throne by Jalaluddin khalji.