• The history of geological formation, varied topography, spatial rainfall distribution have resulted in emergence of well-defined mineral belts in India, which can be divided as:
    1. The North-Eastern Peninsular Belt
      • This belt comprises of Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Odisha plateau in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha
      • This is the richest mineral belt of India, which contains large quantities of coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, copper, kyanite, chromite, etc.
      • The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is known as the mineral heart land of India
    2. Central Belt
      • This belt encompasses parts of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra; and is the second largest mineral belt of India
      • Large deposits of manganese, bauxite, limestone, marble, coal, gems, mica, iron ore, graphite are found here
    3. The southern Belt
      • It covers mostly the Karnataka plateau, but extends over the contiguous Tamilnadu upland
      • It has deposits of ferrous minerals; but lacks coal deposits except lignite at Neyveli
    4. The South-Western Belt
      • Western Karnataka and Goa are included in this belt
      • It has deposits of iron ore, garnet and clay
    5. The North-Western Belt
      • This belt extends along the Aravalli in Rajasthan and in adjoining parts of Gujarat
      • This belt holds promise for mining of non-ferrous metals such as copper, lead, zinc, along with uranium, mica, beryllium and precious stones
    6. Other belts
      • Outside of the main belts described above, minerals in some other parts of the country are scattered as well
      • Assam has reserved of petroleum and lignite
      • The Himalayan region has some deposits of coal, bauxite, copper, etc.
      • Mumbai High and Godavari Basin have reserves of oil and natural gas
      • With advancement of technology, there is potential to exploit the sea bed on the continental shelf of India as well