A climatic region has a homogeneous climatic condition which is the result of a combination of factors.
Temperature and rainfall are two important elements which are considered to be decisive in all the schemes of climatic classification.
The whole of India has a monsoon type of climate. But the combination of elements of the weather, however, reveal many regional variations.
Major climatic types of India based on Koeppen’s scheme . Koeppen based his scheme of Climatic classification on monthly values of temperature and precipitation.
He identified five major climatic types, namely:
(i) Tropical climates, where mean monthly temperature throughout the year is over 18°C.
(ii) Dry climates, where precipitation is very low in comparison to temperature, and hence, dry. If dryness is less, it is semi- arid (S); if it is more, the climate is arid(W).
(iii) Warm temperate climates, where mean temperature of the coldest month is between 18°C and minus 3°C.
(iv) Cool temperate climates, where mean temperature of the warmest month is over 10°C, and mean temperature of the coldest month is under minus 3°C.
(v) Ice climates, where mean temperature of the warmest month is under 10°C.