Growth of Industry in India

  • Industry or the secondary sector of the economy is another important area of economic activity. After independence, the government of India emphasized the role of industrialization in the country’s economic development in the long run. Accordingly, the blue print for industrial development was made through the Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) in 1956.
  • The 1956 policy emphasized on establishment of heavy industries with public sector taking the lead in this area. Adoption of heavy or basic industries strategy was justified on the ground that it will reduce the burden on agriculture, enable growth in the production of consumer goods industries as well as small industries that are helpful for employment generation and achieving self reliance.
  • After the adoption of the IPR, 1956 there was tremendous growth in industrialization during the second and third plan periods i.e. 1956-61 and 1961-66. Public sector contributed maximum to this growth.
  • But towards the end of 1960s, investment in industries was reduced which adversely affected its growth rate.
  • In the 1980s, this trend was reversed and investment in industries was increased by making the infrastructure base such as power, coal, rail much stronger.
  • In early 1990s it was found that the public sector undertakings were not performing upto expectation. There has been reports of mismanagement in these under takings resulting in loss. So in 1991 the government of Indian decided to encourage the role of private sector in industrial development, remove the rigid licence system which is known as liberalization and allow international players to compete in the domestic country as well as domestic players to explore foreign territories.
  • The aim of taking all these steps was to strengthen the process of industrialization in the country. Such a model of industrial development is called Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) model. After the adoption of this new policy in 1991, there has been phases of growth followed by slowdown in the industrial development process.
  • In the early years of 1990s there was significant growth in industrialization due to increase in investment in infrastructure, reduction in excise duty, availability of finance etc.
  • But towards the end of 1990s the growth rate slowed down due to stiff competition from international companies, inadequate infrastructure support etc. However, in the beginning of the new millennium, between 2002-08 there was again some recovery due to increase in saving rate from 23.5 percent in 2001-2 to 37.4 percent in 2007- 08.
  • Even the competition from the foreign companies helped during this phase as the domestic companies could create enough internal strength in term of quality control, finance and customer care etc. to withstand the competition. However after 2008-09 there was some slow down in industrial growth due to rise in petroleum price, interest rate and borrowings from abroad which has created lot of liabilities for the domestic companies.


Market Size

  • The sector’s gross value added (GVA) at current prices was estimated at US$ 348.53 billion as per the second advanced estimates of FY21. The IHS Markit India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) reached 55.5 in April 2021 from 55.4 in March 2021. The manufacturing GVA accounts for 19% of the country’s real gross value added.
  • As per the latest survey, capacity utilisation in India’s manufacturing sector stood at 66.6% in the third quarter of FY21.
  • The manufacturing component of the IIP stood at 116.9 between April 2020 and March 2021.
  • According to the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, India’s industrial output measured by the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) stood at 143.4 in March 2021.



  • With the help of Make in India drive, India is on a path of becoming the hub for hi-tech manufacturing as global giants such as GE, Siemens, HTC, Toshiba, and Boeing have either set up or are in process of setting up manufacturing plants in India, attracted by India’s market of more than a billion consumers and an increasing purchasing power.
  • In May 2020, the Government of India increased FDI in defence manufacturing under the automatic route from 49% to 74%.
  • India has become one of the most attractive destinations for investment in the manufacturing sector. Some of the major investments and developments in this sector in the recent past are:
  • In FY21, India received a total foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow of US$ 81.72 billion, a 10% increase YoY.
  • On February 16, 2021, Amazon India announced to start manufacturing electronic products in India, starting first with Amazon Fire TV stick manufacturing. The company plans to start manufacturing with contract manufacturer Cloud Network Technology, a subsidiary of Foxconn in Chennai by end-2021.
  • In April 2021, Samsung started manufacturing mobile display panels at its Noida plant and plans to ramp up manufacturing IT display panels soon.
  • Samsung Display Noida, which has invested Rs. 4,825 crore (US$ 650.42 million) to move its mobile and IT display manufacturing plant from China to Uttar Pradesh, has received special incentives from the state government.
  • In April 2021, Bharti Enterprises Ltd. and Dixon Technologies (India) Ltd., formed a joint venture to take advantage of the government’s PLI scheme for the manufacturing of telecom and networking products.
  • In April 2021, Godrej Appliances launched a range of Made-in-India air conditioners (AC). The company plans to invest Rs. 100 crore (US$ 13.48 million) in its manufacturing units (located in Shirwal and Mohali) to increase its AC production capacity to 8 lakh units by 2025.


Government Initiatives

  • The Government of India has taken several initiatives to promote a healthy environment for the growth of manufacturing sector in the country. Some of the notable initiatives and developments are:
  • The government approved a PLI scheme for 16 plants for key starting materials (KSMs)/drug intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The establishment of these 16 plants would result in a total investment of Rs. 348.70 crore (US$ 47.01 million) and generation of ~3,042 jobs. The commercial development of these plants is expected to begin by April 2023.
  • As part of efforts to expand its smartphone assembly industry and improve its electronics supply chain, the government, in March 2021, announced funds worth US$ 1 billion in cash to each semiconductor company that establishes manufacturing units in the country.
  • The Union Budget 2021-22 is expected to enhance India’s domestic growth in manufacturing, trade and other sectors. Development of a robust infrastructure, logistics and utility environment for the manufacturing sector is a primary focus field.


Some of these initiatives are as follows:


  • In May 2021, the government approved a PLI scheme worth Rs. 18,000 crore (US$ 2.47 billion) for production of advanced chemical cell (ACC) batteries; this is expected to attract investments worth Rs. 45,000 crore (US$ 6.18 billion) in the country, and further boost capacity in core component technology and make India a clean energy global hub.
  • In India, the market for grain-oriented electrical steel sheet manufacturing is witnessing high demand from power transformer producers, due to the rising demand for electric power and increasing adoption of renewable energy in the country.
  • In line with this, in May 2021, JFE Steel Corporation in collaboration with JSW Steel Limited (JSW) signed a MoU to evaluate a study to establish a grain-oriented electrical steel sheet manufacturing & sales joint-venture company in India.
  • To facilitate manufacturing and investment in sectors such as ICT and telecom, in May 2021, TEMA (Telecom Equipment Manufacturers Association of India) signed a collaboration deal with ICCC (Indo-Canada Chamber of Commerce) to promote ‘Make in India’ and ‘Self-reliant India’ initiatives.
  • India’s display panel market is estimated to grow from ~US$ 7 billion in 2021 to US$ 15 billion in 2025.
  • The Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) scheme to build world-class infrastructure will enable global industry champions to be created, benefiting from economies of scale and agglomeration. Seven Textile Parks will be established over three years.
  • The government proposed to make significant investments in the construction of modern fishing harbours and fish landing centres, covering five major fishing harbours in Kochi, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, and Petuaghat, along with a multipurpose Seaweed Park in Tamil Nadu. These initiatives are expected to improve exports from the textiles and marine sectors.
  • The ‘Operation Green’ scheme of the Ministry of the Food Processing Industry, which was limited to onions, potatoes and tomatoes, has been expanded to 22 perishable products to encourage exports from the agricultural sector. This will facilitate infrastructure projects for horticulture products.
  • The Union Budget 2021-22 allocated funds of Rs. 1,000 crore (US$ 137.16 million) for the welfare of tea workers, especially women and their children. About 10.75 lakh tea workers will benefit from this, including 6.23 lakh women workers involved in the large tea estates of Assam and West Bengal.


Road Ahead

  • India is an attractive hub for foreign investments in the manufacturing sector. Several mobile phone, luxury and automobile brands, among others, have set up or are looking to establish their manufacturing bases in the country.
  • The manufacturing sector of India has the potential to reach US$ 1 trillion by 2025. The implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) will make India a common market with a GDP of US$ 2.5 trillion along with a population of 1.32 billion people, which will be a big draw for investors. The Indian Cellular and Electronics Association (ICEA) predicts that India has the potential to scale up its cumulative laptop and tablet manufacturing capacity to US$ 100 billion by 2025 through policy interventions.
  • With impetus on developing industrial corridors and smart cities, the Government aims to ensure holistic development of the nation. The corridors would further assist in integrating, monitoring and developing a conducive environment for the industrial development and will promote advance practices in manufacturing.
  • References: Central Statistics Office, FICCI, Economic Survey of India, DPIIT, Media sources, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Manufacturing Industries