- Big Banks:The Narasimham Committee Report (1991), emphasised that India should have three or four large commercial banks, with domestic and international presence, along with foreign banks.
The second tier may comprise several mid-size lenders, including niche banks, with economy-wide presence.
In accordance with these recommendations, the government has already merged a few PSBs, initiated steps towards setting up of DFI, Bad Bank, etc.
- Need for Differentiated Banks:Though the universal banking model has been widely preferred, there is a need for niche banking to cater to the specific and varied requirements of different customers and borrowers.
Essentially, these specialised banks would ease the access to finance in areas such as RAM (retail, agriculture, MSMEs).
Further, the proposed DFI/niche banks may be established as specialised banks to have access to low-cost public deposits and for better asset-liability management.
- Technology driven Banking:Risk management can be more specific and the neo-banks can leverage the technology to further (digital) financial inclusion and finance higher growth of aspirational/new India.
- Mitigating Moral Hazard:Till date, failure of public sector banks has been a rare phenomenon and the hidden sovereign guarantee is the main reason for superior public confidence in the banks. However, with the privatization drive of PSBs, this may not be always true.
Therefore, fifth generation banking reforms should focus on the need for higher individual deposit insurance and effective orderly resolution regimes to mitigate moral hazard and systemic risks with least cost to the public exchequer.
- ESG Framework:Differentiated Banks also may be encouraged to get listed on a recognised stock exchange and adhere to ESG (Environment, Social Responsibility, and Governance) framework to create value for their stakeholders in the long run.
- Empowering Banks:The government should tighten the loose ends by allowing them to build diversified loan portfolios, establishing sector-wise regulators, bestowing more powers to deal effectively with wilful defaulters.
There is also a need to pave the way for the corporate bond market (shift from bank-led economy) to create a responsive banking system in a dynamic real economy.