Programmes and policies introduced in India in recent times to address the issues


National Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a Pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA):

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rain fed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY):

Government of India is committed to accord high priority to water conservation and its management. To this effect Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) has been formulated with the vision of extending the coverage of irrigation ‘Har Khet ko pani’ and improving water use efficiency ‘More crop per drop’ in a focused manner.

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY):

The Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY), an initiative to promote organic farming in the country, was launched by the NDA government in 2015.

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY):

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is the government sponsored crop insurance scheme that integrates multiple stakeholders on a single platform.

Livestock insurance Scheme:

This scheme aims to provide protection mechanism to the farmers and cattle rearers against any eventual loss of their animals due to death and to demonstrate the benefit of the insurance of livestock to the people and popularize it with the ultimate goal of attaining qualitative improvement in livestock and their products.

Scheme on Fisheries Training and Extension:

It was launched to provide training for fishery sector so as to assist in undertaking fisheries extension programmes effectively.

National Scheme on Welfare of Fishermen:

This scheme was launched to provide financial assistance to fishers for construction of house, community hall for recreation and common working place. It also aims to install tube-wells for drinking water and assistance during lean period through saving cum relief component.

Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF):

The government approved a dedicated Rs5,000 crore fund to bring more land area under micro-irrigation as part of its objective to boost agriculture production and farmer’s income.

Future of Indian Agriculture:

  1. Future of agriculture is a very important question for the planners and all other stakeholders. Government and other organizations are trying to address the key challenges of agriculture in India, including small holdings of farmers, primary and secondary processing, supply chain, infrastructure supporting the efficient use of resources and marketing, reducing intermediaries in the market. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources.
  2. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources. Although its contribution in the gross domestic product (GDP) has reduced to less than 20 per cent and contribution of other sectors increased at a faster rate, agricultural production has grown. This has made us self-sufficient and taken us from being a begging bowl for food after independence to a net exporter of agriculture and allied products.
  3. Total food grain production in the country is estimated to be a record 291.95 million tones, according to the second advance estimates for 2019-20. This is news to be happy about but as per the estimates of Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), demand for food grain would increase to 345 million tones by 2030.
  4. India is blessed with large arable land with 15 agro-climatic zones as defined by ICAR, having almost all types of weather conditions, soil types and capable of growing a variety of crops. India is the top producer of milk, spices, pulses, tea, cashew and jute, and the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane and cotton.
  5. Many startups in agriculture by highly educated young ones show that they are able to understand the high potential of putting money and efforts in this sector. Cumulative effects of technology over the next decade will change the face of agriculture.
  6. Advantageous weather and soil conditions, high demand for food, untapped opportunities, various fiscal incentives given by the government for inputs, production infrastructure, availability of cheap credit facilities and for marketing and export promotion are attracting many individuals, big companies, startups and entrepreneurial ventures to do a lot of investments on innovations, inventions, research and development and on other aspects of business.
  7. The country’s population in the next decade is expected to become the largest in the world and providing food for them will be a very prime issue. Farmers are still not able to earn respectable earnings.