Evolution of E-Governance in India


  • Department of Electronics: The establishment of the Department of Electronics in 1970 was the first major step towards e-governance in India as it brought ‘information’ and its communication to focus.
  • National Informatics Centre (NIC): established in 1977, launched the District Information System program to computerize all district offices in the country
  • NICNET – National Informatics Centre: The main thrust for e-governance was provided by the launching of NICNET in 1987 – the national satellite-based computer network.


The Indian experience demonstrates that the onset of e-Governance proceeded through the following phases:

  • Computerisation: In the first phase, with the availability of personal computers, a large number of Government offices got equipped with computers. The use of computers began with word processing, quickly followed by data processing.
  • Networking: In this phase, some units of a few government organizations got connected through a hub leading to sharing of information and flow of data between different government entities.
  • On-line presence: With increasing internet connectivity, a need was felt for maintaining a presence on the web. This resulted in maintenance of websites by government departments and other entities. Generally, these web-pages/web-sites contained information about the organizational structure, contact details, reports and publications, objectives and vision statements of the respective government entities.
  • On-line interactivity: A natural consequence of on-line presence was opening up of communication channels between government entities and the citizens, civil society organizations etc. The main aim at this stage was to minimize the scope of personal interface with government entities by providing downloadable Forms, Instructions, Acts, and Rules etc. In some cases, this has already led to on-line submission of Forms. Most citizen-government transactions have the potential of being put on e-Governance mode.


E-Governance related policies in India








National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)




·         The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), takes a holistic view of e-Governance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision, a shared cause.

·         National e-Governance Plan has been launched with the aim of improving delivery of Government services to citizens and businesses,

·         “Make all Public Services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man.”









e-Kranti – Electronic delivery of services




·         e-Kranti is an essential pillar of the Digital India initiative.

·         The mission of e – Kranti is to ensure a government wide transformation by delivering all Government services electronically to the citizens through integrated and interoperable systems via multiple modes while ensuring efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs.


Objectives of e-Kranti

The objectives of ‘e-Kranti’ are as follows:

  • To redefine NeGP with transformational and outcome-oriented e-Governance initiatives
  • To enhance the portfolio of citizen centric services
  • To ensure optimum usage of core Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
  • To promote rapid replication and integration of e-Governance applications
  • To leverage emerging technologies
  • To make use of more agile implementation models



E-governance related applications in Indian governance











Government to Citizen (G2C) Initiatives




·         Bhoomi Project: Bhoomi is a flagship project of the Karnataka State Government. It was launched to digitize all land records in the state to prevent corruption and manipulation of data.

·         Gyandoot: A project launched by the Madhya Pradesh government.It is a Mission Mode Project in which 2,50,000 Panchayati Raj Institutions were identified to deliver e-Governance services to rural populations.

·         Lokvani Project: Public-private partnership project at Sitapur District in Uttar Pradesh, to provide a single window, self-sustainable e-Governance solution with regard to handling of grievances, land record maintenance and providing a mixture of essential services.

·         Project FRIENDS in Kerala: FRIENDS (Fast, Reliable, Instant, Efficient Network for the Disbursement of Services) is a Single Window Facility providing citizens the means to pay taxes and other financial dues to the State Government.

·         e-Mitra Project in Rajasthan: Committed to quick and convenient delivery of citizen services, Government of Rajasthan 






Government to Business (G2B) Initiatives



·         e-Procurement Project in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat:
To reduce the time and cost of doing business for both vendors and government.

·         MCA 21: By the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The project aims at providing easy and secure online access to all registry related services provided by the Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs to corporates and other stakeholders at any time and in a manner that best suits them.




Government to Government (G2G) Initiatives




·         Khajane Project in Karnataka: It is a comprehensive online treasury computerization project of the Government of Karnataka.

·         SmartGov (Andhra Pradesh): SmartGov has been developed to streamline operations, enhance efficiency through workflow automation and knowledge management for implementation in the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat.




G2E (Government to Employee)


  • e-learning methods; 
  • Consolidating the employee and 
  • Share of knowledge among the employees.