- It is an international treaty for the conservation and wise use of wetlands.
- It is named after the Iranian city of Ramsar, on the Caspian Sea, where the treaty was signed on 2 February 1971.
- Known officially as ‘the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat’ (or, more recently, just ‘the Convention on Wetlands’), it came into force in 1975.
- Montreux Record under the Convention is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
- It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
- The Montreux Record was established by Recommendation of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (1990).
- Sites may be added to and removed from the Record only with the approval of the Contracting Parties in which they lie.
Wetlands are crucial for a healthy planet because:
The health of people on our planet depends on healthy wetlands.
- 40% of the world’s species live or breed in wetlands.
- Wetlands are “nurseries of life” – 40% of animals breed in wetlands.
- Wetlands are “kidneys of the earth” – they clean the environment of pollutants.
- Wetlands “matter for climate change” – they store 30% of land-based carbon.
- Wetlands “minimize disaster risks” – they absorb storm surge.
List of Ramsar sites in India
|Sl. No.||Name of Site||State Location|
|1||Kolleru Lake||Andhra Pradesh|
|4||Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary||Gujarat|
|5||Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary||Gujarat|
|7||Sultanpur National Park||Haryana|
|8||Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary||Haryana|
|9||Chandertal Wetland||Himachal Pradesh|
|10||Pong Dam Lake||Himachal Pradesh|
|11||Renuka Wetland||Himachal Pradesh|
|12||Wular Lake||Jammu & Kashmir|
|13||Hokersar Wetland||Jammu & Kashmir|
|14||Surinsar-Mansar Lakes||Jammu & Kashmir|
|15||Tsomoriri Lake||Jammu & Kashmir|
|18||Vembanad Kol Wetland||Kerala|
|19||Tso Kar Wetland Complex||Ladakh|
|20||Bhoj Wetlands||Madhya Pradesh|
|26||Beas Conservation Reserve||Punjab|
|29||Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve||Punjab|
|30||Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary||Punjab|
|32||Keoladeo Ghana NP||Rajasthan|
|34||Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|36||Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|37||Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|38||Saman Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|39||Samaspur Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|40||Sandi Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|41||Sarsai Nawar Jheel||Uttar Pradesh|
|42||Sur Sarovar||Uttar Pradesh|
|43||Upper Ganga River
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
|44||Asan Conservation Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|45||East Kolkata Wetlands||West Bengal|
|46||Sunderbans Wetland||West Bengal|