Values across culture

  • Power Distance – Power distance is the degree to which people accept uneven distribution of power in the society and institutions. People with high power distance tend to accept unequal power distribution. The people with low power distance relatively prefer equal distribution of power. Low power distance cultures adopt Democratic way of governance (for e.g. India) and high power distance cultures adopt autocratic style of governance (for e.g. Gulf countries).
  • Individualism vs. Collectivism – Individualism refers the degree to which people value individual goals over the group goals (For e.g. western democracy – Rights over Duty) whereas in collectivism, individuals give preference to group goals over individual goals (Duty over Rights). Libertarian states such USA can be said to more inclined towards individualism (Rawls’ Social contract) whereas Russia and China can be referred as more inclined to collectivism (Hobbes’ social contract)
  • Masculinity vs. Femininity – Masculinity represents the degree to which the culture favours traditional masculine domination over privilege and power (for e.g. Afghan Taliban) whereas femininity value represents no demarcation between the roles of males and females (for e.g. Egalitarian societies such as Canada, New Zealand etc.)
  • Long term vs. short term orientation – Long term orientation is a national value which emphasises on future, saving and perseverance (For e.g. Value of sustainable development) whereas short term orientation emphasises on past and present.
  • Indulgence vs. restraint – Indulgence is the degree to which people prefer to enjoy life, have fun and fulfil natural desires (Materialistic way of life) whereas restraint is the degree to which gratification of individual’s needs, desires and behaviour is governed by social norms or spiritual values (Spiritual way of life).