Classifying values has always been a complicated task since there is no hard and fast rule to classify values as they are closely interlinked. Some of the important values are as follows.

  • Personal Values – It is personal to an individual both in terms of their possession and their use. It is a desire and cherished by the individual irrespective of his social relationship. These values make a person good for himself. Examples being ambition, cleanliness, discipline etc.
  • Family Values – Family as a social institution is based on certain universally defined value system which are nurtured and cultivated within a family system. Mainly, these values comes from the lead of the family mostly father who transfer these values to their children, who further impart these values to future generation.
  • Social ValuesIt refers to certain behaviours and beliefs that are shared within specific cultures and social groups. These values are good for the society and form the basis of the relationship of an individual with other people in society. Examples being courtesy, charity, civic duty etc.
  • Moral Values These values constitute attitude and behaviour that a society consider essential for co-existence, order and general well-being. It enables an individual in making a distinction between right and wrong and good and bad etc. Example being fairness, justice, human dignity etc.
  • Ethical Values Ethical values are a set of moral principles that apply to a specific group of people, professional field or form of human conduct. These values presuppose moral courage and the power to act according to one’s moral convictions even at the risk of financial, emotional or social security. These relate to our personal behaviour with our fellow beings. All moral values are also covered under ethical values.
  • Spiritual Values it refers to the process of reflecting on non-material dimensions of life and acquiring insights into personal experiences. They affect the individual in his relations with himself and concerned with the realisation of the ‘Self’ and being one with ‘Divinity’. Examples being truth, beauty, goodness etc.
  • Cultural Values Cultural values are the standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong in a society. It gives importance to preserve cultural practices, ceremonies, traditions etc. which might be threatened by the materialistic culture of modern times. Examples being hospitality, social order, tolerance etc.
  • Trans-cultural values – Values that are similar in practice among different cultures throughout the whole world. These can be categorized as universal values since these values are followed across the cultures.
  • Intrinsic Values They are the ends in themselves, not the means for achieving some other end. In the hierarchy of human values, these values stand at the highest place and are superior to all other values of life. Examples being goodness, beauty, happiness, bliss etc.
  • Instrumental Values These are such values that are useful in deriving some other benefit through them such as economic gain or an increase in status. A subject is said to have instrumental value when it is pursued, not for its own sake but for some ends beyond itself. Example being education for success in life, political power to do public service etc.
  • Aesthetic Values It seeks to emulate the beauty of the Divine through the arts. Things and activities which gives joys of beauty are aesthetic values. Example being beauty, taste, architecture etc.
  • Democratic Values These values are characterized by the respect for individuality, equal treatment to all, ensuring equal social, political and religious rights to all, impartiality and social justice and respect for the democratic institutions.
  • Dis-Value – Values which demoralize and undermine the human growth and development can be termed as dis-value. This includes jealousy, envy, revenge etc.