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- Epicureans – They held that humankind’s happiness consists in obtaining pleasure that life can offer, thereby ultimate purpose of human action is pleasure.
- Stoics – They claimed that the ultimate purpose of human action is to cultivate the human mind or acquire knowledge.
- Materialism – They maintain that people’s happiness consists in acquiring material goods, thus the acquisition of wealth is or should be the ultimate purpose of human action.
- Humanism – They hold that the ultimate end of human action is in achieving prosperity and progress for the human race.
- Humanitarianism – They held that the ultimate end of human action is service – Be it service to humankind in general or to a nation, an organization or a group in particular.