Madhva He was a 13th century philosopher from Karnataka. After several years of independent study and reflection, he produced his own interpretation of Vedanta which developed into the school of Dvaita Vedanta. He believes in Personalistic theism and holds that God who is Vishnu can be known only by the scriptures.

Dvaita Vedanta 
It distinguishes between the World (Dependent Reality) and Brahman (Independent Reality) and recognizes two kinds of reality to describe World and Brahman.

Madhva regards Shankar’s Nirguna-Brahman not as reality but as an empty and absurd concept and takes Shankar’s Saguna (qualified) –Brahman as ultimate reality. He teaches that Brahman is God – the creator, the sustainer and the destroyer of the world and is the Lord of Karma.

The soul is eternal (birth and death are due to its connection with and separation from body). Though the soul is dependent on God but it is also an active agent – performs right and wrong actions and acquires merits and demerits. However, soul doesn’t enjoy absolute freedom but only relative freedom given by its divine master.

Tat twam Asi 
Jivas (Soul) are different from God. God is the worshipped master whereas jivas are his worshipping servants. God is omniscient, omnipotent and perfect whereas jiva has finite knowledge, limited power and is absolutely dependent on God. God dwells in the soul but he does not experience its joys and sorrows.

Selves are eternal and atomic. Consciousness and bliss are intrinsic to them but owing to their past karma, selves become entangled with bodies and suffer pain and misery.

Liberation (Bhakti Marga)  
Total devotion and self-surrender to God are the only means of salvation. According to Madhva, Bhakti is defined as Eternal Love for God with full sense of His Greatness. The Jiva gets released through the grace of God.

Liberated soul and God
For Shankar, salvation consists in the loss of personal self and individuality in the impersonal Absolute. For Madhva, salvation does not result

in the loss of self or its individuality but liberated self retains its individuality and consciousness, and enjoys eternal bliss in the infinite glory of God. According to Madhva, the liberated self is only partially similar to God since it does not enjoy the full bliss of God.