Coral reefs take few principal forms like.
(1) Fringing reefs consist of flat reef areas that directly skirt a nonreef island, often volcanic, or a mainland mass.
(2) Barrier reefs are also close to a non reef landmass but lie several kilometres offshore, separated from the landmass by a lagoon or channel often about 50 metres (160 feet) deep. Some barrier reefs are more or less circular, surrounding an island, but larger barrier reefs, such as those along the Red Sea coast and Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, are complex linear features consisting of chains of reef patches, some of them elongated into ribbon reefs.
(3) Atolls are like circular barrier reefs but without their central landmass.