- Grows at a height of 1800 to 3000 m above sea level
- Mean annual rainfall is 150 cm to 300 cm
- Mean annual temperature is about 11°C to 14°C and the
- Average relative humidity is over 80 per cent.
- Higher hills of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, in the Eastern Himalayan region.
- These are closed evergreen forests. Trunks have large girth.
- Branches are clothed with mosses, ferns and other epiphytes.
- The trees rarely achieve a height of more than 6 metres.
- Deodar, Chilauni, Indian chestnut, birch, plum, machilus, cinnamomum, litsea, magnolia, blue pine, oak, hemlock, etc. are important species.
- Annual rainfall varies from 150 cm to 250 cm
- Occurs in the temperate zone of the Himalayas between 1500 and 3300 metres.
- Cover the entire length of this mountain range in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Darjeeling and Sikkim.
- Mainly composed of coniferous species.
- Species occur in mostly pure strands.
- Trees are 30 to 50 m high.
- Pines, cedars, silver firs, spruce, etc. are the most important trees.
- They form high but fairly open forest with shrubby undergrowth including oaks, rhododendrons and some bamboos.
- It provides fine wood which is of much use for construction, timber and railway sleepers.
- Precipitation is below 100 cm and is mostly in the form of snow.
- Coniferous forests with xerophytic shrubs in which deodar, oak, ash, olive, etc are the main trees.
- Such forests are found in the inner dry ranges of the Himalayas where south-west monsoon is very feeble.
- Such areas are in Ladakh, Lahul, Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal and Sikkim.