Based on the three elements of biodiversity, that is, genes, species and ecosystems, biodiversity is considered to be of three types:

  • Genetic diversity: It can be understood as the diversity of genes within a particular species. This diversity ensures that some species can survive disruptions. Thus, genetic diversity gives us beautiful butterflies, roses, corals and fruits in myriad hues, sizes and shapes.
  • Species diversity: It refers to the variety of species within a particular geographical region. Species which are different from one another do not interbreed naturally However, closely associated species can have a lot of similarity in their hereditary characteristics. For example, humans and chimpanzees have about 98.4 percent genes which are the same. Species diversity is measured by species richness, which means the number of different species per unit area in a region, and species evenness equitably, which refers to the relative abundance of individuals of different species in an area.
  • Ecosystem or Community diversity: It refers to the diversity of different biological communities or ecosystems like forests, deserts, lakes, corals etc. In a region or on the earth. As the ecosystem changes, species best adapted to that particular ecosystem becomes predominant. Thus, biodiversity also depends on the nature of the ecosystems.