Measurement of biodiversity was done by Whittaker. Biodiversity can be measured by two major components: Species Richness and Species Evenness
- Species Richness: It refers to the measure of a number of species found in per unit area of a region or community. It has three components:
- Alpha diversity: It refers to the diversity of species found in a particular area or ecosystem, and is usually expressed by the number of species in that ecosystem.
- Beta diversity: It refers to the comparison of the diversity of species between two or more ecosystems, usually measured as the change in the number of species between the ecosystems.
- Gamma diversity: It is the measure of the overall diversity for the different ecosystems in a region. It is highly subjective because of different perceptions about the boundaries of the region.
- Species Evenness: It is the measure of relative abundance of individuals of different species in a given region. Low evenness in general, means that a few species dominate the region or ecosystem.