The major cropping pattern types include the following:
- Monocropping: Growing one agricultural species at a time in agricultural land is the meaning of monocropping. Monocropping can reduce the fertility of the soil and destroy the structure of the soil. Chemical fertilizers are required to upgrade production. This practice allows the spread of pests and diseases. Monocropping and monoculture convey the same meaning.
- Mixed Cropping: When two or more crops are grown on an equivalent land simultaneously, it’s referred to as mixed cropping. For example, growing wheat and gram on an equivalent land at an equivalent time is mixed cropping. The practice of this method helps to minimize the risk of the failure of one of the crops and provides insurance against the crop failure due to abnormal weather conditions. The crops that are grown together should have a different maturation time and different water requirements.
- Intercropping: Intercropping is the practice of growing quite one crop on an equivalent field at an equivalent time during a definite row pattern. After one row of the most crop, three rows of intercrops are often grown. This increases productivity per unit area.
- Crop Rotation: In this pattern, different crops are grown on an equivalent land in pre-planned succession. The crops are classified based on the time they are rotated one-year rotation, two-year rotation, and three-year rotation, depending upon their duration. Legumes are included within the crop rotation program to extend soil fertility. The crops which require a high fertility level are often grown after the legumes. The crops which require low inputs are often grown after the crops that need high inputs.