Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern

Cropping pattern of any region depends upon many factors





Physical Factors


  • Soil: The type of crop that would be grown using a particular type of soil is determined by the components of soil and climatic influence of a region
  • Climate: In the dry regions where the rainfall is scanty and where there is high uncertainty of monsoons, the dependence is on jowar and bajra. Water logging areas cultivate rice.
  •   Cropping pattern also depend upon irrigation facilities. Where ever water is available, not only can a different crop be grown but even double or triple cropping will be possible.








Economic Factors



  • Economic motivation is the most important in determining the cropping pattern of the country. Among the various economic factors affecting crop pattern, the following are important:
  • Price and Income Maximization: Price variations exert an important influence on acreage shifts. The variation in the inter-crop prices led to shifts in acreage as between the crops.
  • Farm Size: There is a relationship between the farm size and the cropping pattern. The small farmers are first interested in producing food grain for their requirements. Small holder therefore devotes relatively small acreage to cash crops than large holders.
  • Insurance against risk: The need to minimise the risk of crop failures not only explains diversification but also some specific features of crop patterns.
  • Availability of Inputs: Seeds, fertilizers, water storage, marketing, transport etc. also affect the cropping pattern.
  • Tenure: Under the crop sharing system, the landlord has a dominant voice in the choice of the cropping pattern and this helps in the adoption of income maximising crop adjustments.


Infrastructure facilities


  • Irrigation
  • transport
  • storage
  • trade and marketing
  •  post-harvest handling
  • processing etc



Government Policies




  • The legislative and administrative policies of the government may also affect the cropping pattern. Food Crops Acts, Land Use Acts, intensive schemes for paddy, for cotton and oilseeds, subsidies affect the cropping pattern.
  •  MSP – farmers shifting to wheat, rice
  • Green Revolution – skewed cropping pattern in Northern India towards wheat and rice from coarse cereals and pulses



Social factors




Food habits also play a role – East and South India prefers rice as staple food while it is wheat in North India.