Irrigation and Irrigation Systems

  • Irrigation is the controlled application of water through man-made systems to meet the water requirements of agriculture. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to crops or plants, especially when an agricultural field does not get enough water through rains.
  • Having perhaps the largest irrigated area in the world, India faces acute water scarcity. We need to adopt irrigation methods that help not only in saving freshwater, but also provide sufficient water to plants for growth.
  • Thus the process of supplying water to crops by artificial means such as canals, wells, tube-wells, tanks, etc. from the sources of water such as rivers, tanks, ponds or underground water is called irrigation.

Need for Irrigation:

  • Enhance Productivity
  • Tap the Productive potential of soil
  • Reduce dependence upon Monsoon and rainfed agriculture
  • Enhance Production by having multiple crops within a year



1. Account for the major irrigation challenges faced by Indian farmers and suggest what policy measures and reforms are needed to resolve the same. (250 Words)

2. Unscientific use of irrigation water is giving rise to a variety of ecological problems in India. Elucidate.  (250 words)

3. Irrigation is pivotal to agricultural, social, economic growth of nation. Discuss in detail the benefits and concerns associated with Irrigation systems in the country.(250 words)

4. What are the reasons for accelerated depletion of groundwater in our country? Why is it so crucial for irrigation in India? Discuss its correlation with cropping intensity. (250 words)

 5. Examine the historical evolution of irrigation in India, the nature of shifts that have occurred over the years, and the major challenges it faces now. (200 Words)

6. Stressing on the need for Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) in India, discuss the limitations in implementing it. (250 words)

7. What do you understand by micro irrigation? Discuss its importance to a country like India?(250 words)

8. Examine whether the increase in irrigation efficiency leads to greater groundwater sustainability? Discuss how increasing irrigation efficiency can lead to more sustainable water usage?(250 words)