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UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice – Insights SECURE: 10 July 2024

UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice
UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Q1.Art and Cultural heritage in our country face various risks. Discuss the efforts being taken to protect it, with particular emphasis on Project PARI. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: PIB Insights on India

Why the question:

The Ministry of Culture, Government of India, on the occasion of the 46th Session of the World Heritage Committee Meeting, which is being held in New Delhi from 21st-31st July 2024, has initiated Project PARI (Public Art of India)

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons as to why heritage is under threat and the need to safeguard India’s art heritage and the steps that need to be taken for the same.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain about what all is included in India’s arts and cultural heritage – paintings, sculpture, monuments etc

Body:

First, highlight that preserving our heritage is enshrined as a fundamental duty

Next, Examine the threats to art heritage such as Lack of public awareness – e.g., Duplication of paintings and art forms, Theft, Vandalism and Smuggling etc. Discuss why it is crucial to safeguard such heritage such as maintaining identity and pride of our country, tourism etc

Next, explain about Project PARI and other initiatives for preserving arts and culture of India.

Conclusion:

Give a way forward, what more can be done.

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these

Q2. The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed? (250 words, 15M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Congress’s Rajya Sabha Chief Whip Jairam Ramesh submitted a breach of privilege notice against Prime Minister.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse the the absence of legal codification of parliamentary privileges as per Article 105 of the Indian Constitution through relevant case laws and suggest ways to address this issue.

Directive:

Assess – This requires a detailed examination of the reasons for the lack of codification and proposing solutions.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction:

Introduce Article 105 of the Indian Constitution, outlining the powers, privileges, and immunities granted to Parliament and its members, and mentioning the existence of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges.

Body:

First part: Article 105 provides freedom of speech in Parliament and immunity from legal proceedings for anything said or done within the House.

Emphasise that many privileges remain un-codified, derived from British parliamentary traditions.

Second part: Reasons for the absence of legal codification like historical context due to colonial era, flexibility, complexity and political resistance.

Third part: Problems arising from the lack of codification.

Ambiguity and potential misuse of privileges, Legal uncertainties leading to conflicts and breaches of privilege claims, Instances where lack of clarity has resulted in disputes.

Fourth part: Solutions to address the problem.

Partial Codification, Parliamentary Committee, Judicial Interpretations

Conclusion:

Emphasise the need to balance flexibility with clarity to prevent misuse of parliamentary privileges and the importance of periodic review and adaptive measures to ensure privileges serve their intended purpose in a transparent and accountable manner.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

Q3. Taking a leaf out of the European regulatory handbook, India has proposed a new digital competition law. Discuss major provisions of draft Digital Competition Bill by India. How does it prevent self-preferencing among the tech giants? (150 words, 10M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

This article was covered in “Text and context” section of The Hindu today. In February 2023, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) constituted a Committee on Digital Competition Law (CDCL) to examine the need for a separate law on competition in digital markets.

Key Demand of the question:

To discuss the major provisions of India’s draft Digital Competition Bill and explain how it aims to prevent self-preferencing among tech giants.

Directive:

Discuss – This requires providing an overview of the major provisions of the draft Digital Competition Bill and explaining its mechanisms for preventing self-preferencing by tech giants.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction:

Introduce the draft Digital Competition Bill, highlighting its inspiration from European regulatory practices and its aim to ensure fair competition in digital markets.

Body:

First part: Major Provisions of the Draft Digital Competition Bill.

Defines digital markets and identifies significant digital intermediaries, Prohibition of Anti-Competitive Practices, Data Portability and Interoperability, Transparency in Algorithm, Consumer Protection

Second part: Prevention of Self-Preferencing.

Ban on Self-Preferencing, Separation of core services from other commercial services to avoid conflicts of interest.

Conclusion:

Summarise the significance of the draft Digital Competition Bill in fostering a level playing field in digital market. Highlight the importance of effective implementation and enforcement to achieve the desired outcomes.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Science and Technology

Q4. Transfer of critical technology to developing countries like India is crucial for a sustained partnership and an inclusive future. In this regard, discuss the significance of the US-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET). What are the hurdles in its implementation? (250 Words)

 Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India, TH

 Why the question:

Recently, India and the United States unveiled a roadmap for enhanced collaboration in high-technology areas, with a focus on addressing regulatory barriers and aligning export controls for smoother trade and “deeper cooperation” in critical areas. This was part of the Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) announced by President Joe Biden and Prime Minister Narendra Modi last year.

Key Demand of the question:

To discuss the significance of the US-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET) and identify the hurdles in its implementation.

 Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly introduce the importance of technology transfer for developing countries and mention the launch of the US-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET).

 Body:

  Significance of iCET:

  • Strengthening bilateral relations between the US and India.
  • Promoting innovation and technological advancement.
  • Enhancing defense and strategic partnerships.
  • Contributing to economic growth and development.
  • Supporting sustainable development and inclusive growth.

  Hurdles in Implementation:

  • Regulatory and bureaucratic barriers.
  • Intellectual property rights (IPR) issues.
  • Differences in technological standards and practices.
  • Geopolitical challenges and strategic concerns.
  • Funding and resource allocation constraints.
  • Suggest measures to address these hurdles

 Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: Environment Conservation

Q5. Discuss the UN’s High Seas Treaty and its rules for marine biodiversity conservation and resource sharing. How will this treaty impact India? (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: IE ,Insights on India

 Why the question:

India to ratify High Seas Treaty

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the UN’s High Seas Treaty and its impact on India.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving aims and objectives behind the Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) treaty, also known as the ‘High Seas Treaty’.

Body:

First, write about the major features of the treaty – Environmental impact assessments for activities taken up on high seas, Conservation of marine genetic resources, Capacity building, Technology transfer, Cross-cutting issues such as institutional structure and financial support.

Next, write about the impact on India from the above treaty – potential and limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to overcome the limitations.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contribution of moral thinkers

 Q6. What does this quote means to you? (10M, 150 words)

“The truth is, no one of us can be free until everybody is free” – Maya-Angelou

 Difficulty level: Difficult

 Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General Studies Paper 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’.

 Structure of the answer: 

Introduction: Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning about the importance of freedom and liberty.

 Body:

First, write about what freedom and liberty mean to an individual.

Elaborate on the interconnectedness of human beings in life and its link to social justice and inclusiveness.

Finally, discuss the significance of being free in life. Use examples to justify your stand and link to other similar theories. 

Conclusion: Summarize by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

 

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