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UPSC Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 JULY 2024

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same.

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Art and Culture

Q1. Analyze the role of visual depictions and symbols, such as the abhaya mudra, in conveying religious and philosophical ideas in Indian art and sculpture.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Deccan Herald    

Why the question:

Visual depictions and symbols in Indian art and sculpture serve as powerful mediums to express complex religious and philosophical concepts, offering insights into the cultural and spiritual heritage of India.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the significance of visual symbols like the abhaya mudra in Indian art and sculpture, and how they convey religious and philosophical messages.

Directive word:

Analyze –When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction:

Introduce the significance of visual depictions and symbols in Indian art and sculpture, emphasizing their role in religious and philosophical expression.

Body:

  1. Explain the general importance of visual symbols in Indian art and sculpture, highlighting their function in storytelling, religious instruction, and philosophical discourse.
  2. Discuss how these symbols serve as visual representations of abstract concepts, making them accessible to a broader audience.
  3. Analyze how visual symbols like the abhaya mudra effectively communicate complex religious and philosophical ideas, transcending language barriers.
  4. Highlight the role of these symbols in ritual practices, meditation, and devotional activities, enhancing spiritual experiences.

Conclusion:

Summarize the crucial role of visual depictions and symbols in conveying religious and philosophical ideas in Indian art and sculpture.

Reflect on the enduring power of these symbols to connect past and present, preserving and revitalizing India’s rich cultural and spiritual heritage.

Introduction

Indian art and sculpture have a long history of using visual depictions and symbols to convey deep religious and philosophical ideas. Among these symbols, the abhaya mudra—an open hand gesture signifying protection, peace, and fearlessness—holds significant importance. This gesture, along with other visual motifs and symbols, serves as a powerful medium for expressing complex spiritual and philosophical concepts in a manner that transcends language barriers.

Body:

Symbolism in Indian Art:

  1. Abhaya Mudra: This gesture, commonly associated with Hindu and Buddhist deities, signifies reassurance, divine protection, and the dispelling of fear. It is often depicted in sculptures of Buddha and various Hindu gods like Vishnu and Shiva.
  2. Lotus Flower: Symbolizes purity, enlightenment, and rebirth. Frequently seen in depictions of deities like Lakshmi and Saraswati, it represents spiritual awakening and the unfolding of the soul.
  3. Chakra (Wheel): Represents dharma (moral law) and the cycle of life, death, and rebirth. It is prominently featured in the Sarnath Lion Capital and on the national flag of India.
  4. Trishula (Trident): Associated with Shiva, this symbol represents the trinity of creation, preservation, and destruction. It also signifies control over the mind, body, and spirit.

Conveying Philosophical Ideas:

  1. Mudras (Hand Gestures): Different mudras in Indian art convey various states of mind and philosophical teachings.
    1. For example, the dhyana mudra symbolizes meditation and the path to enlightenment.
  2. Iconography of Deities: Each deity’s iconography—attributes, postures, and accompanying animals—conveys specific philosophical messages.
    1. For instance, Ganesha’s large ears signify listening more, his small mouth signifies speaking less, and his large stomach symbolizes the ability to digest both good and bad in life.
  3. Narrative Reliefs: Temples like those at Khajuraho and Hampi use narrative reliefs to depict stories from epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata, illustrating moral and ethical dilemmas and the triumph of good over evil.

 

Influence on Society:

 

  1. Spiritual Connection: These visual symbols help individuals connect with the divine and understand complex religious teachings. They serve as focal points for meditation and devotion.
  2. Cultural Identity: The use of specific symbols in art and sculpture reinforces cultural identity and continuity, preserving philosophical and religious ideas through generations.
  3. Education: Before the widespread availability of written texts, these symbols and depictions were crucial in educating the masses about religious stories and philosophical concepts.

Conclusion

The role of visual depictions and symbols in Indian art and sculpture is profound, serving as a bridge between the material and spiritual worlds. Symbols like the abhaya mudra encapsulate deep philosophical ideas and convey them in an accessible and universally understandable manner.

 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena

 Q2. Discuss the significance of ocean currents in regulating the Earth’s climate. Provide examples of major ocean currents and their effects.

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insightsias

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how ocean currents regulate the Earth’s climate, with specific examples of major ocean currents and their impacts.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction:

Introduce the concept of ocean currents and their importance in the Earth’s climate system.

Body:

  1. Explain how ocean currents distribute heat from the equator to the poles, helping to regulate global temperatures.
  2. Discuss the role of ocean currents in driving weather patterns, influencing precipitation, and impacting climatic conditions.
  3. Then provide examples of Major Ocean Currents and their Effects like Gulf stream, Humboldt Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current etc.

Conclusion:

Summarize the critical role of ocean currents in regulating the Earth’s climate and supporting marine ecosystems.

Introduction

Ocean currents are powerful, continuous movements of seawater that play a fundamental role in regulating the Earth’s climate. By transferring warm water from the equator towards the poles and cold water from the poles towards the equator, ocean currents help maintain the planet’s thermal balance.

Body:

Significance of ocean currents in regulating the Earth’s climate:

  1. Heat Distribution:
    • Gulf Stream: This warm Atlantic Ocean current originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows towards Europe. It transfers warm water from the tropics to the North Atlantic, contributing to milder winters in Western Europe.
    • Kuroshio Current: A warm current in the Pacific Ocean, it flows from the Philippines to Japan, impacting the climate of East Asia by transporting warm tropical water northwards.
  2. Climate Regulation:
    • California Current: A cold Pacific current that flows southward along the western coast of North America, contributing to the cool and dry climate of California.
    • Canary Current: This cold current flows southward along the northwest coast of Africa, influencing the arid climate of the Canary Islands and the Sahara Desert region.
  3. Weather Patterns:
    • El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): This climate phenomenon involves periodic variations in ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. El Niño events lead to warmer ocean temperatures, affecting global weather patterns by causing extreme weather events like heavy rains, droughts, and cyclones.
    • La Niña: The counterpart to El Niño, characterized by cooler ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, leading to opposite weather patterns such as drier conditions in the Americas and increased rainfall in Southeast Asia and Australia.
  4. Marine Ecosystems:
    • Benguela Current: A cold current off the southwest coast of Africa, it is rich in nutrients and supports one of the world’s most productive marine ecosystems, sustaining large fish populations and marine biodiversity.
    • Humboldt Current: Flowing along the west coast of South America, this cold current brings nutrient-rich waters to the surface, supporting a rich marine ecosystem and major fisheries.
  5. Impact on Coastal Climates:
    • Brazil Current: A warm Atlantic current that flows southward along the eastern coast of South America, influencing the tropical climate of Brazil and supporting diverse marine life.
    • Agulhas Current: A warm current that flows southward along the southeast coast of Africa, affecting the climate of coastal regions and playing a role in the Indian Ocean’s monsoon system.

 

Conclusion

Understanding the dynamics of major ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream, California Current, and ENSO is essential for predicting climatic changes and their potential impacts on human societies and natural environments.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Q3. Has the reservation policy of India achieved its goal of equality and poverty alleviation? Analyse. (150 words)

 Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

 Why the question:

The Bihar government goes to Supreme Court. The Patna High Court had annulled the Bihar govt’s notification increasing reservation from 50% to 65% for backward classes, scheduled castes, and tribes in government jobs and educational institutions.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse whether the reservation policy in India has been effective in achieving equality and poverty alleviation.

Directive:

Analyse – This requires a detailed examination of the reservation policy’s effectiveness, considering both successes and shortcomings.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by briefly explaining the purpose of India’s reservation policy, which aims to promote equality and alleviate poverty among historically marginalised communities.

Body:

  1. First part: Discuss the achievements of the reservation policy.

Highlight improvements in access to education and employment for backward classes, scheduled castes, and tribes.

Mention specific examples or statistics demonstrating these advancements.

  1. Second part: Examine the limitations and challenges.

SC ruling: “Competition for backwardness”

Persistent inequalities and gaps in socioeconomic status.

Issues like caste-based discrimination and the policy’s limited reach in rural areas.

Mention criticisms such as the policy’s potential to perpetuate caste divisions and the debate over meritocracy.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward for reservation. Emphasise the need for complementary measures to address the root causes of inequality and poverty.

Introduction:

Recently, the Patna High Court annulled the Bihar govt’s notification of increasing reservation from 50% to 65% for backward classes, scheduled castes, and tribes in government jobs and educational institutions.

 

The reservation policy in India aims to promote social justice and equality and alleviate poverty among historically disadvantaged groups.

 

Body:

 

Achievements of the Reservation Policy:

 

  1. Increased Representation: The policy has significantly increased the representation of SCs, STs, and OBCs in educational institutions and government jobs.
  • According to the All India Survey on Higher Education 2020–2021, 14.2% of total enrolment in higher education belonged to SCs, 5.8% to STs, and 35.8% to OBCs.
  1. Access to Opportunities: Reservation policies have provided marginalised groups with access to education and employment opportunities, enabling many individuals to pursue higher education and secure jobs in civil services, engineering, medicine, and law.
  2. Socio-Economic Upliftment: The policy has facilitated the creation of a middle class within the reserved categories, improving the socio-economic conditions of many families.
  3. Diversity and Inclusion: Ensuring representation from historically marginalised communities brings diverse perspectives to educational institutions, government bodies, and other spheres, enriching decision-making processes and promoting a more inclusive society.
  4. Challenging Social Prejudices: By providing opportunities for historically disadvantaged groups, the policy challenges social prejudices and promotes a more egalitarian society where individuals are judged on their capabilities rather than their caste background.

 

Challenges of the Reservation Policy:

 

  1. Inadequate Infrastructure: In remote rural regions, the lack of educational institutions and resources prevents marginalised communities from benefiting from the policy.
  2. Meritocracy Debate: Critics argue that reservations based solely on caste can sometimes exclude meritorious candidates from non-reserved categories.
  3. Perception of Preferential Treatment: Critics argue that caste-based reservations can lead to a perception of preferential treatment, which may further fuel social divisions.
  4. Insufficient Focus on Quality Education and Skill Development: Access to educational institutions and job reservations may not be sufficient if the education provided does not equip individuals with the necessary skills to compete in a competitive job market.
  5. Benefits cornered by few: Most disadvantages within reserved communities still struggle to access opportunities.

To achieve greater equality and poverty alleviation, a comprehensive and balanced approach is needed:

 

  1. Focusing on Quality Education and Skill Development: Improving the quality of education and providing skill development programs for marginalised communities.
  2. Addressing Intersectionality: Considering multiple forms of disadvantage such as gender, disability, and regional disparities.
  3. Sub Categorisation of castes: To distribute the benefits of reservation to the most marginalised sections of society.

 

Conclusion:

 

The reservation policy in India has made significant strides in achieving equality and poverty alleviation, but challenges remain. The Supreme Court has said that there is a “competition for backwardness” in Indian Society.

 

As India progresses, it will be imperative to assess the reservation policies not just on their intent but also on their outcomes. The ultimate goal should be to craft a system that genuinely uplifts the disadvantaged, promotes fairness, and contributes to the building of a more inclusive society.

 

Q4. How can the existing legal frameworks and judicial precedents in India, which were designed for a pre-AI world, be effectively adapted to govern the rapidly-evolving technology of Generative AI, especially concerning issues of liability, copyright, and data privacy? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Question is based on the article “Digital jurisprudence in India, in an AI era” published in The Hindu today.

Key Demand of the question:

To explore how existing legal frameworks and judicial precedents in India can be adapted to address issues related to Generative AI, including liability, copyright, and data privacy.

Directive:

Discuss – This requires a detailed exploration of how legal frameworks and judicial precedents can be adapted to effectively govern Generative AI.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by highlighting the significance of Generative AI in the contemporary digital landscape and the challenges it poses to existing legal frameworks.

Body:

  1. First part: Discuss issues of liability. Provide SC judgement.

Explain current liability frameworks and their limitations in the context of AI.

Propose adaptations such as defining AI developers and operators’ responsibilities and creating AI-specific regulations for liability.

  1. Second part: Address copyright concerns. Provide recent example.

Highlight how Generative AI can infringe on existing copyright laws.

Suggest updates to copyright legislation to include AI-generated content, ensuring clear ownership and protection rights for creators and users.

  1. Third part: Examine data privacy issues. Illustrate using Puttuswamy judgement.

Discuss existing data privacy laws and their applicability to AI.

Recommend enhancing data protection regulations to address AI’s unique challenges, such as data usage transparency, consent mechanisms, and robust enforcement mechanisms.

Conclusion:

Emphasise the importance of ongoing legal reforms and judicial interpretations to keep pace with rapid technological change and need for a forward-looking legal framework that integrates technological advancements and ensures accountability, protection of intellectual property, and data privacy.

Introduction:

Generative AI (GAI) stands at the forefront of technological innovation, revolutionising digital interactions and content creation. However, its rapid evolution poses significant challenges to existing legal frameworks designed for a pre-AI era.

 

Body:

 

  1. Liability Issues:
  • The landmark Shreya Singhal judgement addressed this by upholding Section 79 of the IT Act which grants intermediaries ‘safe harbour’ protection against hosting content, contingent upon meeting the due diligence requirements.
  • However, applying these to AI platforms is complex due to their role as facilitators of content creation rather than passive intermediaries.

Adaptations that are required to pre-AI laws:

  • Defining clear responsibilities for AI developers and operators
  • Establishing AI-specific regulations for liability
  • Ensuring accountability mechanisms that account for AI’s dynamic and autonomous capabilities.
  1. Copyright Concerns:
  • Section 16 of Indian Copyright Act 1957 specifically provides that “no person” shall be entitled to protection of copyright except by the provisions of the Act.
  • The 161st Parliamentary Standing Committee Report found that the Copyright Act of 1957 is “not well equipped to facilitate authorship and ownership by Artificial Intelligence”.
  • New York Times alleged ChatGPT of using its articles for training the model. ChatGPT’s ‘Terms of Use’ attempt to shift liability to the user for any illegal output.

Updates to copyright legislation could involve:

  • Recognising AI-generated content under intellectual property laws
  • Potentially requiring co-authorship attribution with human creators
  1. Data Privacy Challenges:
  • The Puttaswamy judgement laid the foundation for robust data privacy laws in India, culminating in the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023.
  • Existing laws may struggle to address AI’s unique data privacy challenges, such as the ability of AI models to retain and utilise vast amounts of personal data without the capacity to “unlearn” it.

Enhancing data protection regulations could involve:

  • Stricter transparency requirements for AI-driven data usage.
  • Strengthened consent mechanisms tailored to AI interactions.
  • Enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with data privacy standards.

 

 

Conclusion:

 

As Generative AI continues to reshape digital landscapes, it is imperative for India’s legal framework to evolve proactively. Ongoing legal reforms and judicial interpretations must keep pace with technological advancements to ensure a balanced approach that fosters innovation while safeguarding individual rights.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy/Digital Economy

Q5. Digital India programme is essential for ensuring comprehensive digital inclusion in the country. Has it been able to bridge the digital divide and foster a digitally empowered society in India? Evaluate. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: PM India

Why the question?

Digital India initiative (DII) completes 9 years

Key Demand of the question: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Digital India programme in bridging the digital divide and fostering a digitally empowered society.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction: The Digital India programme was launched to ensure digital access, inclusion, and empowerment across the country, aiming to bridge the digital divide and create a knowledge-based economy.

Body:

  1. Bridging the Digital Divide:
    • Rural-Urban Divide: Initiatives like BharatNet have expanded internet connectivity to rural areas.
    • Financial Inclusion: Aadhaar-linked payment systems and DBT schemes facilitate cashless transactions and direct benefit transfers.
  2. Fostering a Digitally Empowered Society:
    • Accessible Digital Services: Digital locker, eSign frameworks, and online platforms simplify access to government services.
    • Digital Literacy: Programs like Digital Saksharta Abhiyan aim to make at least one person in every household e-literate.
  3. Limitations:
    • Persistent Digital Divide: Significant portions of the population, especially in rural areas, still lack internet access.
    • Affordability: High costs of devices and data plans limit access for economically weaker segments.
    • Infrastructure Gaps: Inadequate electricity and broadband connectivity in rural areas hinder adoption.

Conclusion: While Digital India has made substantial progress in bridging the digital divide and fostering a digitally empowered society, challenges remain. Continued investment in infrastructure, targeted digital literacy programs, and affordable access are essential to achieving comprehensive digital inclusion.

Introduction

Government has launched the Digital India programme with the vision of transforming India into a digitally empowered society and a knowledge-based economy, by ensuring digital access, digital inclusion, digital empowerment and bridging the digital divide. The programme is centred on three key vision areas, namely digital infrastructure as a core utility to every citizen, governance and services on demand, and digital empowerment of citizens.

Body:

Role of Digital India programme in bridging the digital divide and foster a digitally empowered society in India:

  1. Bridging the rural-urban divide: Digital India focuses strongly on expanding digital infrastructure and access to rural areas through initiatives like BharatNet for internet This helps bridge the technology access gap.
  2. Financial inclusion: Mobile and Aadhaar-linked payment systems, DBT schemes under Digital India are enabling cashless transactions, direct benefit transfers and preventing leakage. This is expanding digital financial inclusion.
    • g. more than 40% of all payments done in India are digital.
  3. Accessible digital services: Digital locker, eSign frameworks, online registration platforms make government services more easily accessible for citizens by simplifying processes.
  4. Universal digital literacy: Digital Saksharta Abhiyan initiatives under Digital India aiming to make at least one-person e-literate in every household helps promote adoption at grassroots.
    • g. initiatives like “SWAYAM,” offering online courses, and the “National Digital Library,” providing access to a vast collection of academic resources.
  5. Job opportunities: Digital infrastructure enhancement and digital skill development is helping create employment and entrepreneurship opportunities including in smaller towns.
  6. Mobile Connectivity and Mobile Apps: The initiative has promoted the development of mobile apps for various government services, enhancing accessibility and convenience for citizens.
    • g. UMANG app to access to all the governance related work.

 

Limitations of Digital India Programme:

  1. Digital Divide: Despite progress, the digital divide persists, with rural areas having limited access to the internet and technology. Around 50% of the population is still not online.
  2. Lack of customization: High diversity in adoption readiness and pace across different parts of the country demands flexibility in implementation design rather than one size fits all.
  3. Variable success of digital skilling: Digital literacy focused initiatives not uniformly successful due to lack of qualified trainers, customized vernacular content and monitoring mechanisms.
  4. Affordability barriers: High costs of devices, data plans restrict sustainable adoption for economically weaker segments even if infrastructure exists.
  5. Rural infrastructure gaps: Issues like inadequate electricity, broadband connectivity obstruct rural adoption even as urban pivots to 5G and fiberization.

Way forward:

  1. Infrastructure Development: Invest in comprehensive rural broadband infrastructure.
  • g. BharatNet project aims to connect over 250,000 village panchayats with high-speed broadband.
  1. Launch targeted digital literacy programs, especially in rural and marginalized communities.
    • g. The National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) and Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)
  2. Public-Private Partnerships: Encourage collaborations between government and private sectors for digital inclusion.
    • g. Initiatives like ‘Digital Village’ projects
  3. Subsidized schemes or partnerships with private companies can provide cost-effective smartphones and data plans to economically disadvantaged populations.
  4. Impact assessment: Regular surveys and feedback mechanisms can gauge the impact of digital initiatives on different segments of the population.
  5. Multilingual Digital Initiatives: Develop and promote digital content in regional languages.

Conclusion

While Digital India has laid the foundations, achieving holistic digital empowerment needs patient stakeholders addressing demographic and regional realities via sustainable models rather than rushing purely for numbers.

 

Topic: Indian Economy/Taxation

Q6. Examine the Goods and Services Tax (GST) reform in India in terms of challenges faced and the need for further changes. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: HT

Why the question?

Goods and Services Tax (GST) completes 7 years

Key Demand of the question: Analyze the challenges faced by GST reform in India and identify areas requiring further changes for effective implementation.

Structure of the Answer:

Introduction: GST reform, introduced in 2017, aimed to unify India’s tax system under “One nation, One Market, One tax.”

Body:

Challenges Faced:

  • Procedural Difficulties: Complex return forms and ambiguous tax rates.
  • Exclusion: Many businesses remain outside the GST net.
  • Tax Fraud: Issues with input tax credit and stricter enforcement affecting genuine taxpayers.
  • Lack of GST Appellate Tribunal: Taxpayers frequently approaching high courts for disputes.

Need for Further Changes:

  • Simplification of Tax Rates: Rationalizing tax slabs.
  • Operationalizing GST Appellate Tribunal: Establishing for quicker dispute resolution.
  • Enhanced Technological Solutions: Tackling GST evasions and upgrading laws.
  • Inclusion of Excluded Sectors: Adding petroleum products, alcohol, etc.

Conclusion: While GST reform has streamlined India’s tax structure, addressing complexities, expanding the taxpayer base, and enhancing tech integration are crucial for success. Further refinements will ensure a more effective tax system.

Introduction

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) reform in 2017, with its motto, “One nation, One Market, One tax,” aimed to consolidate multiple tax laws into a single system, and bring unity and benefits for all stakeholders, governments, taxpayers, and administrators alike.

 

Body

Achievements of GST so far:

  • The tax base more than doubled since 2017, with revenues witnessing substantial growth over the years.
  • The taxpayer base has witnessed a remarkable increase, surging from around 64 lakhs in 2017 to approximately 1.40 crore currently (2023).
  • GST revenues have experienced substantial growth over the years. In its initial year, the monthly average stood at around ₹89,000 crores, but it has now stabilised at a robust ‘new normal’ of ₹1.50 lakh crore in the last financial year.
  • It paved the way for other significant indirect tax reforms, including e-way bills and e-invoicing, promoting transparent data sharing between businesses and the government.

 

Challenges with the GST format:

  • Procedural difficulties:
    • Complexities in return forms
    • The ambiguity surrounding tax rates
    • Classifications of certain goods and services lead to disputes and uncertainty
  • Exclusion:
    • When the size of the GST taxpayer base is compared to that of income tax, it is apparent that there is scope for many more business entities and companies to enroll for GST.
    • Businesses in retail trade, construction real estate, and some service segments are more prone to voluntary exclusion.
  • Tax fraud:
    • The availing of the input tax credit has been contentious with every instance of GST fraud/fake invoicing leading to the hardening of the stance of GST authorities.
    • Genuine taxpayers are increasingly at the receiving end of suspicion and even instances of abuse of power by GST authorities on the ground.
    • High courts across the country are faced with petitions filed by taxpayers against arbitrary cancellations of GST registrations and disproportionate denials of input credits.
  • Appellate tribunal:
    • GST Appellate Tribunals which was recently formed is yet in nascent stage hence the more comprehensive work structure and clarity in appellate tribunal is much needed.

 

Further reforms needed in GST are:

  • Rationalization of the tax rates (slabs) to simplify the process and reduce complexities
  • Strong work structure for GST Appellate Tribunal to help taxpayers get a quicker and cost-effective resolution.
  • Tackling the current scale of identity theft-based GST evasions would require robust technological solutions to supplement the existing legal provisions.
  • Upgrading the law to deal with a digital world and keep up with the various technological developments
  • New additions needed:
    • Commencing taxation of petroleum crude, high-speed diesel, petrol, natural gas and aviation turbine fuel, and similarly, alcohol meant for human consumption
    • Inclusion of other levies such as electricity duty, stamp duty, etc.
    • Clarifying, amongst others, conundrums of inter-branch services and cross-charge, taxation of online gaming activities, transactions involving cryptocurrency,

Conclusion

GST Council recent decision to Implement Phased Roll-Out of Biometric-Based Aadhaar Authentication for GST Registration is one of many needed reforms for GST. As India continues to embrace the transformative power of GST, it should initiate further harmonization of the tax provisions to address the gaps.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Q7. “Developing EI is critical for navigating the complexities of adulthood among students”. In this context what are the key component of emotional intelligence. Explain briefly about the importance of EI among students?

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: India Today

Why the question:

In the context of Indian college students, developing EI is critical for navigating the complexities of academic life, building meaningful relationships, and preparing for future careers.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issue of ragging, study stress among students linking to emotional intelligence.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining Emotional intelligence or give context of raising suicide in Kota students.

Body:

Write about EI and its determinants along with diagram.

Then write about the role that EI play in navigating student adulthood.

Cite suitable examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing on its significance or quote.

Introduction:

Emotional Intelligence refers to the ability to recognize, understand, and manage one’s own emotions, as well as to perceive, empathize with, and effectively navigate the emotions of others.

Eg: Coping oneself after the failure of an exam and handling the life in matured manner is outcome of good EI.

 

Body:

According to Goleman’s model there are five key components of Emotional Intelligence:

  1. Self-awareness: This involves recognizing and understanding one’s own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, values, and motivations. Self-aware individuals are conscious of how their emotions affect their thoughts and behaviour.
  2. Self-regulation: Also known as emotional self-control, this component refers to the ability to manage and control one’s emotions, impulses, and reactions.
  3. Motivation: This aspect of EI involves having a passion for work, setting and pursuing meaningful goals with energy and persistence, and being driven to achieve for reasons beyond external rewards.
    • Eg: Perseverance to become topper of class or batch with hard work.
  4. Empathy: It involves being able to perceive emotions accurately, recognizing emotional cues, and responding effectively to others’ emotions with sensitivity and compassion.
    • Eg: Feeding the street dog on the way to college.
  5. Social skills: Social skills encompass a range of abilities related to managing relationships and interactions with others. This includes communication skills, conflict resolution, teamwork and the ability to influence.
    • Eg: Group studies and involve in cultural activity with peer group.

 

The significance of EI among the students and adulthood is:

  • Students with high EI tend to manage their emotions effectively, cope with stress, and maintain focus on their studies. They are better able to handle academic pressures.
    • Eg: NIMHANS study found that 37.7% of college students in India reported high levels of stress.
  • EI can help in manage of their impulses, regulate their emotions, and make responsible decisions, contributing to a positive school environment.
  • EI skills are transferable to various aspects of life beyond academics. They prepare students for future challenges in higher education, careers, and personal relationships.
    • Eg: Good leader like Gandhi, Dr B.R Ambedkar learnt leadership since their college days.
  • EI among the students can bring the morally upright citizen of India which contribute to the national morals like tolerance and fraternity.

 

Conclusion:

Fostering Emotional Intelligence among students not only enhances their academic success but also equips them with essential life skills, social competencies, and emotional resilience necessary for their overall development and well-being. Hence it is often quoted that “When awareness is brought to an emotion, power is brought to your life”.

 

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