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UPSC Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 JUNE 2024

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same.

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1.  While India maintained a non-aligned stance in principle, its foreign policy during the Cold War was marked by pragmatic alliances and relationships that occasionally aligned more closely with one superpower than the other. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India ,  Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

Highlight nature of engagement of NAM countries with the superpowers. Evaluate the role played by India, as a member of NAM.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce NAM, and the background in which it emerged.

Body:

Elaborate on the role played by NAM in easing tensions between the superpowers by citing examples. Note how NAM did not practise isolationism or neutrality.

Next, write the role played by India as part of NAM, and steps taken by it to reduce geo-political tensions.

Next, write about the nature of non-alignment by India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a balanced opinion on the issue.

Introduction

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was created and founded during the collapse of the colonial system and the independence struggles of the peoples of Africa, Asia, Latin America and other regions of the world and at the height of the Cold War. Throughout its history, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries has played a fundamental role in the preservation of world peace and security.

Body

Role of NAM countries in reducing cold war conflicts

  • In middle of the cold war, NAM ensured that peoples being oppressed by foreign occupation and domination can exercise their inalienable right to self-determination and independence.
  • South-South Cooperation: NAM acted as a protector for the small countries against the western hegemony. The third world nations and newly independent countries supported each other in their quest for development.
  • NIEO: During the 1970s and 1980s, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries played a key role in the struggle for the establishment of a new international economic order(NIEO) that allowed all the peoples of the world to make use of their wealth and natural resources and provided a wide platform for a fundamental change in international economic relations and the economic emancipation of the countries of the South.
  • Disarmament: The Non-aligned Movement repeatedly comes out for maintenance of peace, ‘the cessation of arms race and the peaceful coexistence of all States.

India’s contribution to NAM

  • As a leader of NAM, India’s response to the cold war power politics was two-fold:
    • India steered itself away from the great power politics, positioning itself as an ‘interested observer’.
    • It raised its voice against the newly decolonized nations from joining the either bloc.
  • During the cold war, India made a, concerted effort to activate those regional & international organizations, which were not a part of the alliances led by US & USSR, thus maintaining the spirit of NAM.
  • In the General Assembly, India submitted a draft resolution declaring that the use of nuclear weapons would be against the charter of the United Nations and crime against humanity and should therefore be prohibited.
  • Non-alignment has been an influential tenet of India’s foreign policy since its emergence from decolonization.
  • It was based on a realistic assessment of India’s geopolitical situation.
  • Nehru, one of the chief architects of NAM intended to give India room to manoeuvre according to its own interests rather than allowing it to become confined within the limitations of the cold-war alliance.

Critical analysis

  • India’s inclination towards erstwhile USSR created confusions in smaller members. It led to the weakening of NAM and small nations drifted towards either US or USSR.
  • The signing of Friendship Treaty with Soviet Union was a major Faultline and India was considered anti-west for a long time.
  • However, with the end of cold war power politics and emergence of Unipolar World, non-alignment, both as an international movement as well as the core of India’s foreign policy, has lost some of its relevance & importance.
  • The NAM countries did not have any concrete initiative in the context of crisis in Syria & Libya.
  • Many ‘non-aligned’ countries, including India are continuing NAM as a historical legacy and have re-oriented their foreign policy towards strengthening engagements with major powers, such as USA, Russia & China, for their domestic development agenda.
  • The sparse attendance by heads of government/State at 17th NAM Summit (Venezuela) is the key evidence of the crisis of relevance of NAM.
  • According to C. Raja Mohan NAM is in the state of ‘COMA’. It is passing through the crisis of identity and relevance.

Conclusion

Non alignment as a foreign policy is very much alive even today in India’s foreign policy. The strategic autonomy approach is a manifestation of the same. The NAM platform is still the biggest arena of developing nations. Hence it becomes relevant to mobilize international public opinion against terrorism, weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), nuclear proliferation, ecological imbalance, safeguarding interests of developing countries in WTO (World Trade Organization) etc.

Value Addition

  • The basic concept for the group originated in 1955 during discussions that took place at the Asia-Africa Bandung Conference held in Indonesia.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement was founded and held its first conference (the Belgrade Conference) in 1961 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, and Sukarno of Indonesia.
  • NAM does not have a formal constitution or permanent secretariat, and its administration is non-hierarchical and rotational. Decisions are made by consensus, which requires substantial agreement, but not unanimity.
    • It has 120 members as of April 2018 comprising 53 countries from Africa, 39 from Asia, 26 from Latin America and the Caribbean and 2 from Europe (Belarus, Azerbaijan). There are 17 countries and 10 international organizations that are Observers at NAM.

       

      Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

      2.  The formation of global wind belts is influenced by several interrelated factors that contribute to the movement of air around the planet. Discuss.  (250 words)

      Difficulty level: Easy

      Reference: Insights on India

      Why the question:

      The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

      Key Demand of the question:

      To write about factors affecting horizontal movement of air, causes behind wind belts and their distribution.

      Directive word: 

      Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

      Structure of the answer:

      Introduction: 

      Begin by giving context regarding wind belts.

      Body:

      First, draw a neat labelled diagram showing the global distribution of various wind belts and explain each belt in detail. The three major global wind belts are polar easterlies, westerlies, and trade winds.

      Next, explain the factors that lead to the development of pressures belts – Atmospheric Pressure Gradient, Coriolis Effect, Frictional Force etc, Earth’s revolution, Seasonal variations.

      Conclusion:

      Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The distribution of atmospheric pressure across the latitudes is termed global horizontal distribution of pressure. Its main feature is its zonal character known as pressure belts. All air movements have their roots in pressure differentials in the atmosphere, called pressure gradients. Systematic differences in the Earth’s land temperature affect air pressure, and significant patterns of pressure that persist over time are called pressure belts, or wind belts. Wind belts depend on temperature, so temperature changes can move the belts and also change wind patterns.

Body

The horizontal distribution of air pressure across the latitudes is characterized by high or low-pressure belts.

The factors responsible for development of pressure belts:

  • Thermal Factors
    • When air is heated, it expands and, hence, its density decreases. This naturally leads to low pressure.
    • On the contrary, cooling results in contraction. This increases the density and thus leads to high pressure.
    • Formation of equatorial low and polar highs are examples of thermal lows and thermal highs, respectively.
  • Dynamic Factors
    • Apart from variations of temperature, the formation of pressure belts may be explained by dynamic controls arising out of pressure gradient forces and rotation of the earth (Coriolis force).

Conclusion

The shifting of the pressure belts causes seasonal changes in the climate, especially between latitudes 30° and 40° in both hemispheres. The Monsoon climate is the result of the shifting of pressure and wind belts.

Value addition

These pressure belts are:

  • Equatorial Low-Pressure Belts
    • This low-pressure belt extends from 0 to 5° North and South of Equator.
    • Due to the vertical rays of the sun here, there is intense heating.
    • The air, therefore, expands and rises as convection current causing low pressure to develop here.
    • This low-pressure belt is also called as doldrums because it is a zone of total calm without any breeze.
  • Subtropical High-Pressure Belts
    • At about 30°North and South of Equator lies the area where the ascending equatorial air currents descend.
    • This area is thus an area of high pressure. It is also called as the Horse latitude. Winds always blow from high pressure to low pressure.
    • So, the winds from subtropical region blow towards the Equator as Trade winds and another wind blow towards Sub-Polar Low-Pressure as Westerlies.
  • Circum-Polar Low-Pressure Belts
    • These belts located between 60° and 70° in each hemisphere are known as Circum-Polar Low-Pressure Belts.
    • In the Subtropical region, the descending air gets divided into two parts.
    • One-part blows towards the Equatorial Low-Pressure Belt. The other part blows towards the Circum-Polar Low-Pressure Belt.
    • This zone is marked by the ascent of warm Subtropical air over cold polar air blowing from poles. Due to the earth’s rotation, the winds surrounding the Polar region blow towards the Equator.
    • Centrifugal forces operating in this region create the low-pressure belt appropriately called the Circumpolar Low-Pressure Belt.
    • This region is marked by violent storms in winter.
  • Polar High-Pressure Areas
    • At the North and South Poles, between 70° to 90° North and South, the temperatures are always extremely low.
    • The cold descending air gives rise to high pressures over the Poles. These areas of Polar high pressure are known as the Polar Highs.
    • These regions are characterized by permanent Ice Caps.

       

      Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

      3. Effective parliamentary debates ensure that multiple viewpoints are considered, leading to more comprehensive and well-rounded legislation. Discuss. (250 words)

      Difficulty level: Easy

      Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

      Why the question:

      With a higher proportion of opposition MPs in the new Lok Sabha, one hopes the House would no longer be treated as a mere notice board for the government.

      Key Demand of the question:

      To write about importance of debates in the parliament for our democracy.

      Directive word: 

      Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

      Introduction: 

      Begin by writing about the importance of parliamentary debates and discussion to our democracy.

      Body:

      Further elaborate how these debates and deliberations are enriching for our democracy. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

      Next, give instances of reduced discussions on debates in key national issues in the parliament.

      Next, evaluate the legislative process with respect of debates and discussions. Mention hasty passage of bills, frequent litigations, lack of expertise, bypassing Rajya Sabha, lack of referral to parliamentary committees etc.

      Mention the measures that are needed to remedy this situation.

      Conclusion:

      Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

In any democracy, the main function of the Parliament is to make laws. Parliamentary debates are regarded as most important since the pros and cons of all the bills are highlighted before it gets converted to law. Indian Parliament was once known for its high-quality debates.

The 18-day winter session of Parliament that was adjourned sine die on December 21 marked a new low in India’s parliamentary democracy as the ruling Party refused to engage with the Opposition, evaded executive accountability and passed a battery of Bills with far-reaching consequences for the country while a majority of the Opposition members remained suspended.

With a higher proportion of opposition MPs in the new Lok Sabha, one hopes the House would no longer be treated as a mere notice board for the government.

Body

Debates, discussions and deliberations: Cornerstone of parliamentary democracy

  • Parliament is the crucible of criticism, deliberation and even consensus-making.
  • Democratic accountability demands that the executive decisions be subjected to legislative scrutiny.
  • Debate in the House is important to ensure that every legislation is scrutinized extremely wellon the floor of the House.
  • Debates in Parliament ensures that the views of persons who are adversely affected by a law are heard and actively engaged with.
  • Rushed law-making, rendering Parliament a rubber stamp, sacrifices two core ideals of a constitutional democracy, namely, equal participation and respect for fundamental rights.
  • The debates and discussions are also important because when the courts have to interpret a law, one of the things that they consider is the debate in the House.
  • Debates provide a forum for MPs to express their opinions and concerns, and contribute towards making policy.
  • It allows parliamentarians to voice the interest and issues of the people of their constituencies.

Deteriorating parliamentary productivity in recent times

  • Disruption has become the norm, with the Opposition seeking to use thedebates as a ploy to gain publicity. This is a sad state of affairs as the ruling party with absolute majority is passing the bills without any adequate deliberations or discussions.
  • The basic problem starts with the government’s refusal to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Opposition and give space to it to express its position on any issue.
  • With the Opposition not falling in line, the government has used its majority to push through important Bills without discussion.
  • The extent to which parliamentary proceedings have degenerated can be seen from the astonishing speed in passing Bills.
  • The Lok Sabha, on an average, took less than 10 minutes to pass a law, and the Rajya Sabha passed laws in less than half an hour. There were 13 Bills in this LS session in which no Member of Parliament spoke, other than the minister in charge of the Bill.
  • the PRS Legislative Research data has shown a significant decrease in the involvement of standing committees in legislative matters. So far, only 17 of the 82 Bills since the NDA government was re-elected in 2019 have been referred to standing committees for review.
  • Passing Bills without debate in the House or scrutiny by a committee reduces Parliament to a clearance window for legislations. This effectively means Parliament was neither fulfilling its function of deliberative lawmaking nor of holding the executive accountable.
  • Ordinary Bills are not so much discussed, either because their texts are handed over to the MPs at the last minute or because there is little time for debates.
  • In order to circumvent Parliamentary debates, the government has often followed the ordinance route.
  • The number of Bills that have been referred to parliamentary committees — the deliberative core of parliamentary work — has shrunk dramatically.

Measures needed

  • Code of Conduct:To curb disorder in Parliament there is a need for strict enforcement of code of conduct for MPs and MLAs.
    • These ideas are not new. For example, the Lok Sabha has had a simple code of conduct for its MPs since 1952. Newer forms of protest led to the updating of these rules in 1989.
    • The Lok Sabha Speaker should suspend MPs not following such codes and obstructing the Houses’ business.
  • Increasing Number of Working Days:Recommended by the 2001 conference, there should be an increase in the working days of Parliament. It resolved that Parliament should meet for 110 days every year and state legislative assemblies for 90 days.
    • In the United Kingdom, where Parliament meets over 100 days a year, opposition parties get 20 days on which they decide the agenda for discussion in Parliament. Canada also has a similar concept of opposition days.
  • Democratic Participation:Not all disruptions in the Parliament are necessarily counter-productive. Thus, the government of the day needs to be more democratic and allow the opposition to put their ideas in free manner.
  • Proposals in Individual Capacity:
    • In 2019, Rajya Sabha Deputy Chairperson mooted an idea of evolving a ‘Parliament Disruption Index’to monitor disruptions in Parliament and state legislature.
    • In the Lok Sabha, some members proposed automatic suspension of members who cause disruptionand rush to the Well of the House.
    • But the proposals are still in a nascent stage.
  • Productivity Meter:The overall productivity of the session also can be studied and disseminated to the public on a weekly basis.
    • For this, a “Productivity Meter” could be created which would take into consideration the number of hours that were wasted on disruptions and adjournments, and monitor the productivity of the day-to-day working of both Houses of Parliament.

Way forward

  • The Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy (PLCP) was instituted in 2014 requiring that every Ministry and Department “proactively” publish every proposed draft legislation or subordinate legislation, its justification, essential elements, financial implications and an estimated impact assessment on rights, lives, livelihoods, environment, etc.
  • The policy also provides that all such information should be put in the public domain for a minimum period of 30 days and the feedback received should also be published on the website of the concerned ministry or department.
  • The policy also provides that the summary of this pre-legislative process should be made available to any Parliamentary standing committeeto which the subsequent Bill may be referred.
  • Thus, the policy envisaged a consultation while the Bill is being drafted and a study and consultation by a Parliamentary committee after it is introduced in Parliament.

Conclusion

The founding fathers of Indian Constitution adopted Parliamentary system of government by considering the fact that it will be more suitable to India’s pluralism and heterogeneity character. But at present healthy debate and discussions, the hall mark of Parliamentary democracy, was overshadowed by disruption, confrontation, forced adjournment of the houses and adopting other non-democratic alternatives.

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4. How do vaccines function? Explain the types and the process of making vaccines. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Researchers have unearthed two promising vaccine candidates that could engage B-cells to make broadly neutralising antibodies to attack HIV.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about functioning, type and process of manufacturing vaccines.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining a vaccine.

Body:

In the first, in detail write the functioning of a vaccine.

Next, write about the various types of vaccines.

Next, write about the process of making a vaccine – including antigen production (using live attenuated, inactivated, or subunit methods), purification, formulation with additives like adjuvants and stabilizers, extensive testing through clinical trials, regulatory approval, large-scale manufacturing, and distribution etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.

Researchers have unearthed two promising vaccine candidates that could engage B-cells to make broadly neutralising antibodies to attack HIV.

Body:

Functioning of a Vaccine:

  • Vaccines work by mimicking disease agents and stimulating the immune system to build up defenses against them without causing the disease itself.
  • They trigger the body’s adaptive immunity, leading to the production of antibodies and memory cells that will recognize and fight off the real pathogen if encountered in the future.

Types of Vaccines:

  • Live Attenuated Vaccines:Contain a weakened form of the germ that causes a disease.
  • Inactivated Vaccines:Contain the killed version of the germ.
  • Subunit, Recombinant, Polysaccharide, and Conjugate Vaccines:Use specific pieces of the germ (like its protein, sugar, or capsid).
  • mRNA Vaccines:Contain material from the virus that causes COVID-19 which gives our cells instructions for how to make a harmless protein unique to the virus.
  • Viral Vector Vaccines:Use a modified version of a different virus as a vector to deliver protection.

Process of Making a Vaccine:

  • Antigen Production:
    • Live attenuated vaccines are created by reducing the virulence of the pathogen.
    • Inactivated vaccines are made by killing the pathogen with chemicals or heat.
    • Subunit vaccines are produced by isolating a specific component of the pathogen.
  • Purification:
    • The vaccine components are purified to remove any unwanted materials.
  • Formulation:
    • Additives like adjuvants (to boost immune response) and stabilizers (to increase shelf life) are added.
  • Testing:
    • Extensive testing through preclinical and clinical trials ensures safety and efficacy.
  • Regulatory Approval:
    • After successful trials, vaccines must be approved by regulatory bodies like the FDA or EMA.
  • Manufacturing:
    • Once approved, vaccines are produced on a large scale in facilities following strict guidelines.
  • Distribution:
    • Vaccines are then distributed globally while maintaining proper storage conditions.

Conclusion:

Vaccines are crucial tools in preventing infectious diseases. They function by training our immune system to recognize and combat pathogens. There are various types of vaccines, each suitable for different diseases and populations. The vaccine production process is rigorous and involves several stages from antigen production to distribution. Through vaccination programs, we can control and even eradicate diseases, protecting individual health and public safety.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. The Montreal Protocol is celebrated as the most effective international climate agreement due to its global consensus, rapid implementation and successful reduction of ozone-depleting substances. Examine the reasons for its success and the learnings it has for other environment related agreements. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate         

Reference: Down to EarthInsights on India

Why the question:

In a promising development for the environment, a new study released has reported the first significant decrease in atmospheric concentrations of potent ozone-depleting substances (ODS) known as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons which makes the Montreal protocol a success.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by writing about the Vienna Convention and subsequent Montreal Protocol.

Body:

In the first part, write the reasons which make Montreal protocol most successful global climate treaty – negotiations, funds, universal ratification, clear articulation and innovation in substitutes etc.

Next, write about the performance – phasing out Chlorofluorocarbon, Ratifying Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) etc.

Next, write about the learnings it has for other environmental related agreements.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward..

Introduction

The Montreal Protocol, enacted in 1987, is a global treaty designed to phase out the production and use of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). This treaty operates under the framework of the Vienna Convention (adopted in 1985). A significant addition to the Protocol came with the adoption of the Kigali Amendment in 2016, which became effective in 2019. This amendment specifically targets the reduction of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which serve as non-ODS alternatives to previously phased-out substances like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)..

The Montreal Protocol has successfully reduced radiative forcing and equivalent effective chlorine from hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) since 2021, indicating progress in mitigating climate change and ozone layer loss, as per a new study published in the Nature Journal.

Body

The Montreal Protocol serves as a model for addressing environmental challenges:

  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Despite efforts, emissions and temperatures continue to rise, with the Paris Agreement showing limited effectiveness.
  • Biodiversity Loss:Human land and sea use are driving biodiversity loss, but international efforts have seen little progress.
  • Wildfires: Increasing greenhouse gases worsen wildfires, necessitating better planning and international cooperation.
  • Climate Change:The reality of climate change is undeniable, requiring developed nations to support developing countries in meeting Paris Agreement goals.

Montreal protocol: the most successful global climate treaty

  • The Montreal Protocol mandated the complete phase-out of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS), which it has successfully managed to do in the last three decades.
  • The protocol was adopted in 1987, becoming the only United Nations treaty to be ratified by its 198 member-states.
  • This effort has led to the healing of the ozone layer hole which, in turn, protects humans, economies, and ecosystems.
  • Researchers believe that the size of the ozone hole has shrunk by around 4 million sq. km since 2000 and is not as deep as it used to be, thanks to the collective efforts of nations to cut the use of chlorofluorocarbons and other dangerous gases.
  • The Montreal Protocol offers a model of a successful environmental treaty that brought nations together to act swiftly on protecting the ozone layer.
  • In 2016, Nations that were party to the protocol got together in Kigali, Rwanda, to discuss the phasing down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as the next step towards addressing ozone depletion, also necessary to curb global warming.
  • Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol came into effect in 2019.

India’s performance in implementing the Montreal Protocol

  • Comprehensive Ozone   Depleting   Substances (Regulation   and   Control)   Rules,   2000   were developed   and   put   in   place   under   the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, which were utmost     important     for     the     successful implementation   of   ODS   phase-out   in   a   vast country like India.
  • The unique feature  of  these  Rules  was  banning  the  use  of CFCs   and   halons   in   manufacturing   of   new equipment  as  early  as  from  1st  January,
  • This has  not  only  achieved  the  early  phase-out of  CFCs  and  halons  in  the  country,  but  also reduced the inventory of ODS based equipment which   resulted   in   reduction   of   servicing requirements.
  • India phased-out of  production  and  consumption    of  virgin halons   as   early   as   2002,   being   high-ODP chemicals.
  • India accelerated  the  phase-out  of  production and  consumption  of  CFCs  with  effect  from  1st August, 2008, 17 months ahead of the Montreal Protocol schedule except use of pharmaceutical grade CFCs in manufacturing of MDIs for Asthma, COPD and other respiratory ailments within the country.
  • The phase-out  of  ODSs  in  MSMEs,  which  were widely   scattered   were   handled   using   an innovative  approach,  realizing  that  MSMEs  are having   relatively   a   large   share   in   Indian economy.
  • India successfully met the 2013 target of freeze of HCFC production and consumption and 10 % phase-out targets  of  HCFCs  in  2015,  as  per  the accelerated phase out schedule of the Montreal Protocol.
  • India has  voluntarily  followed  a  low  carbon development   path   in   HPMP   Stage
  • India is  the  first  country  in  world  to  develop  a Cooling  Action  Plan,  which  addresses  cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which  can  help  reduce  the  cooling  demand and to   reduce   both direct and indirect emissions.

Conclusion

India,   during   the   last   30 years  has  made  outstanding  contributions  for the  protection  of  ozone  layer. To add to its efforts, the Union Government recently approved the ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on phasing down climate-damaging refrigerant Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

Topic: ethical issues in international relations and funding;

6. Enforcing morality in international relations involves leveraging international laws, ethical leadership and conflict resolution mechanisms to promote and uphold ethical standards globally. Comment. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write international morality and its nature and how to enforce it.

Directive:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining international morality.

Body:

Start by explaining what is international ethics – moral principles, customary International Law, Human rights, Cooperation, Non-aggression etc. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Next, write about the ways to enforce it – laws, leadership organizations, diplomacy, economic incentives, civil society, media, education, corporate responsibility et. Cite examples to substantiate

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

International Morality consists of moral principles which are endorsed by a number of nations. The rules of customary International Law reflect International Morality. One of the major sources and sanctions of International Law has been International Morality.

Body

The Charter of the United Nations reflects International Morality in many of its provisions, for example, in calling for respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination as to race, sex, language or religion. The moral desirability of peace is formally affirmed almost universally, though with provisions and conditions attached. War is now recognized as immoral and even when it has to be resorted to, the nations accept and follow limits on methods of waging it.” Thus there exists an international code of moral values which is popularly called International Morality.

Do Ethical considerations have a say in international relations?

To answer this question, realists and idealists have an ongoing debate. But since the second world war, the debate was settled largely in favour of the realists.

Hans Morgenthau, gave 6 principles of Realism in International Relations

  • Politics is governed by Objective Laws which have roots in Human Nature:
    • The first principle of political realism holds that “politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature.” Humans are power seeking by nature and so are the states.
  • National Interest defined in terms of National Power:
    • No considerations of Moral Imperatives when it comes to national interest. For eg: Even though India espoused Panchsheel principles, China went to war with India in 1962 without as much of a warning.
  • National Interest is always dynamic and it keeps changing. Eg: Russia had imposed arms embargo on Pakistan by being a friend to India, which was lifted recently.
  • Abstract Moral Principles cannot be applied to Politics:
    • Politics is not ethics and the ruler is not a moralist. The primary function of a state is to satisfy and protect the demands of national interest by means of national power.
  • No universal moral principle in international relations
    • Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral principles that govern the universe. It refuses to accept that the national interests and policies of any particular nation reflect universally applied moral principles.
  • Autonomy of International Relations: It is neither ethics nor law or economics. It is an autonomous discipline where national interest reigns supreme

However, it must be noted that, it is without the element of morality that USA decided to use nuclear bomb on Japan. Only after this plan was executed, the world became aware of the devastating consequences that had ensued. Below are examples that highlight this norm.

  • The alleged just war cause where a country thinks it’s their moral responsibility to save the world. E.g.: USA and Iraq war.
  • Threat to the Rules-based order of the world by side-lining of the Global bodies like UNSC, WTO such as USA. Pursuing unilateralism and Protectionism goes against the ideal of Rules-based international world order.
  • China’s dominance in the South China Sea and its policy of “Debt-Trap diplomacy”, “Island-encirclement” and “String of Pearls” show that there is no adherence to morality.

International morality and International Relations

  • Rights and Responsibilities: The UNPeackeeping mission is based on the principle of universal peace. This is the responsibility of the Security Council and all the nations to maintain universal peace. India believes in this ideology and has been the largest cumulative troop contributing nation.
  • Equality: Ethics aim at “Peaceful World”, “Respect for All” & “Equality” while forming international organizations, declarations & forums. E.g.: The demand for equality in IMF & UNO shows the demand of adhering to ethics in a way.
  • Resolving Tensions: Ethics helps to avoid the “Ego Clash” & “Ideological Clash” between two or more nations. For instance, the disruption between India & Pakistan relations can be avoided if both take a decision based on ethics.
  • Solidarity: Natural disasters and refugee crisis situations require a more compassionate view of the global community. These are not isolated events and rather, the duty of every global citizen to help in the times of crisis. g.- Aid during natural disasters (Nepal earthquake)
  • Human rights: Adherence to human rights is vital after the Decalaration of Human Rights in the UN Charter. Eg- lack of ethics in the international relation has been the cause of wars & genocide many times in history (Rawnda and Burundi) and also like the first world war.

Conclusion:

Thus, International Morality plays an important role in international relations of our times. It has been acting as a limiting factor of national power. The realization towards the need for preserving international peace and for directing efforts towards the promotion of universal human welfare has increased the importance of morality in international relations.

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion

7. The link between changing one’s attitude and changing one’s behaviour is bidirectional and often reciprocal. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To develop a link between changing your attitude and changing your behaviour.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction, define attitude and behaviour. Mention the difference between attitude and behaviour.

Body:

With relevant examples elaborate on how attitude can be change and that change in the resultant behaviour. Mention the bidirectional and often reciprocal relationship between the both.

Next, write about how behaviour and attitude affect us and the need to adopt behaviours which are of empathy, compassion, fortitude and integrity.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing how changing to right behaviours and attitude can impact our life positively.

Introduction

Attitude refers to a settled way of thinking or feeling about something, often reflected in a person’s behavior. Behavior is the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.

The main difference between attitude and behavior is that attitude is internal and reflects one’s beliefs and feelings, while behavior is external and visible.

Body

Attitudes can change through experiences, persuasion, and social influences. For example, exposure to diverse cultures can shift attitudes about social norms. Changed attitudes can lead to altered behaviors. For instance, learning about the environmental impact of plastic may lead to adopting recycling habits.

Link between attitude and behaviour

  • A positive attitude can will lead to a positive behavior. Ex: A person who has positive attitudes towards work and co-workers (such as contentment, friendliness, etc.) can positively influence those around them.
  • Similarly, negative attitude led to negative behavior. Ex: if a person has a negative attitude towards women, he will discriminate women in all fronts of life.
  • A selfish attitude will guide individual’s action in same manner. Ex: A cricketer who put his self-interest and profit above the nation, will take money to lose the game.
  • Logic or rational attitudes develop a rational behavior. Ex: a rational person will not act superstitiously and will always try to find rational behind any act.
  • An egoistic attitude will result in a negative attitude and behavior. Ex: elder individuals control their younger siblings even if they are wrong to satisfy their ego of being elder.
  • An attitude based on values and beliefs will act according to the values. Ex: in India touching feet of elders is guided by attitude of giving respect to them.

The relationship between attitude and behavior is bidirectional; not only can attitude influence behavior, but behavior can also affect attitude. Regular volunteering can foster a more altruistic attitude. Adopting behaviors of empathy allows understanding others’ feelings, while compassion leads to taking action to help. Fortitude involves showing courage in adversity, influencing others to face challenges bravely. Integrity ensures actions align with moral principles, earning trust and respect from others.

Conclusion

Embracing behaviors and attitudes of empathy, compassion, fortitude, and integrity can lead to personal growth and positive social impact. Changing to the right behaviors and attitudes enhances relationships, builds character, and contributes to a fulfilling life.