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UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS – 17 June 2024 covers important current affairs of the day, their backward linkages, their relevance for Prelims exam and MCQs on main articles


InstaLinks :  Insta Links help you think beyond the  current affairs issue and help you think multidimensionally to develop depth in your understanding of these issues. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background.

Table of Contents 

GS Paper 2: (UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS – 17 June 2024)

  1. Issues with the National Education Policy (NEP)


GS Paper 3:

  1. Reforms Needed for India to Become a Developed Country
  2. China’s ‘grey-zone’ warfare tactics and its impact


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Dead zone
  2. National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage (NIIMH)
  3. Kavli Prize
  4. Defence Systems in News: Nagastra-1 and Iskander Missile
  5. Divya Drishti



  1. The Group of Seven (G7)



GS Paper 2:

Issues with the National Education Policy (NEP)

Syllabus: Governance: Government Intervention and Policies/ Education

 Source: IE

 Context: The implementation of the National Education Policy (NEP) in India has faced significant challenges and criticism, highlighting several areas of failure.


What is National Education Policy (NEP) 2020?

National Education Policy was introduced in India (based on the recommendations of Kasturirangan and T.S.R. Subramanian committees), aiming to reform the education system from pre-primary to higher education levels. It focuses on universalizing education, adopting a flexible curriculum, promoting multilingualism, and integrating vocational education.


Major Features of NEP 2020:

  1. Universalization of education by 2030 through a 100% Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) from pre-primary to secondary.
  2. Open schooling system for out-of-school children, without admission requirements like NIOS.
  3. Adoption of a 5+3+3+4 curriculum system, replacing the existing 10+2 system.
  4. Teaching in mother tongue up to class 5 without imposition of any language.
  5. Broad-based, multi-disciplinary, holistic undergraduate education with a flexible curriculum, integration of vocational education, and multiple entries and exit points with respective degrees, including undergraduate programs in regional languages.
  6. Establishment of an Academic Bank of Credits to enable credit transfers between institutions.
  7. Introduction of HECI (Higher Education Commission of India) as an umbrella regulator, except for legal and medical education.
  8. Promotion of multilingualism in schools and colleges.
  9. Setting up of a new National Assessment CentrePARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development)
  10. A separate Gender Inclusion fund and Special Education Zonesfor disadvantaged regions and groups


Significance of NEP 2020: 

  1. Inclusive Education for All: NEP 2020 prioritizes inclusive education, accommodating diverse learner needs through early identification and intervention, with proposed Special Education Zones (SEZs) for students with disabilities.
  2. Reducing Disparities: Emphasis on equitable access to quality education, with initiatives like Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan targeting underprivileged areas for infrastructure expansion.
  3. Multilingualism and Cultural Inclusion: Promotion of multilingualism and indigenous language preservation to foster cultural diversity and inclusivity.
  4. Gender Equity: Measures to promote girls’ enrollment and retention, including gender-sensitive curriculum development and establishment of women’s hostels.
  5. Vocational Education and Skill Development: Integration of vocational courses to provide practical skills for employment, benefiting students with diverse academic interests or limited access to traditional pathways.


Issues with the NEP:

  1. Reduction in Syllabus Content: Truncation of syllabi limits comprehensive understanding, as seen in the case of Walt Whitman’s poem “Passage to India,” now taught with only 68 lines instead of 255.
  2. Dilution of Core Subjects: Some institutions, like St Xavier’s University, Kolkata, focus on one major core subject per semester in programs like Economics Honours, potentially leading to insufficient knowledge in core fields.
  3. Administrative Overload: NEP mandates numerous exams and continuous assessments per semester, increasing bureaucratic burdens for students and educators.
  4. Pedagogical Change: Implementation challenges in introducing multi-language learning, foundational skills development, and value-based education, requiring thorough reexamination and adaptation of teaching methods.
  5. Assessment Rethinking: Need for reevaluation of school leaving exams, development of appropriate learning rubrics, and reforming school textbooks to align with the new educational paradigm.
  6. Educator Training: Essential to training teachers and educational staff to deliver child-centred, engaging learning experiences and foster joyful learning environments.
  7. Removing Barriers for Teachers: Addressing personal and professional barriers faced by teachers, especially in remote and inaccessible areas, to ensure the successful implementation of NEP.
  8. Funding and Pay Scale: Challenges in meeting the demand for qualified teachers and improving their pay scale to facilitate conceptual and experimental teaching methods.
  9. Funding Constraints: Challenges in fully implementing NEP proposals due to limited resources, necessitating increased scholarships and private sector involvement without clear strategies outlined in the policy.
  10. Digital Connectivity: Addressing the digital divide by ensuring internet access in remote areas, implementing digital classrooms, and providing training in AR/VR technologies to enhance learning experiences.


Major Initiatives under NEP 2020:

PM Schools for Rising India (SHRI)A scheme aiming to provide high-quality, equitable, and joyful education in schools. Launched in September 2022 for the development of over 14,500 schools nationwide.
NIPUN BharatA mission focused on ensuring universal foundational literacy and numeracy by the end of Grade 3 by 2026-27.
PM e-VIDYAInitiative promoting online education and digital learning through platforms like DIKSHA and offering e-books and content to students.
NCF FS and Jadui PitaraIntroduction of National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage (NCF FS) and Jadui Pitara for play-based learning for children aged 3 to 8 years.
NISHTHACapacity-building program for teachers and school principals in India.
NDEARNational Digital Education Architecture blueprint for digital technology-based education applications.
Academic FrameworksIntroduction of the National Credit Framework (NCrF) and National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF) to facilitate credit transfer and academic flexibility.
Increased InvestmentAdvocacy for the Central and State Governments to allocate a combined 6% of GDP to education.
International CampusesSupport for Indian universities to establish campuses abroad and invite foreign institutions to operate in India.
Educational InnovationInitiative allowing specialized courses by foreign universities and institutions in Gujarat’s GIFT City, focusing on financial services and technology.
World-Class InstitutionsScheme aiming to create affordable, top-notch academic and research facilities, designating “Institutions of Eminence” (IoEs).
GIAN and SPARCGIAN taps into expertise to enhance academic resources, while SPARC fosters research collaborations between Indian and foreign institutions.



“Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.” To improve NEP, we should reassess its credit-based system, emphasizing core subjects for deeper knowledge. Cutting non-core courses can elevate academic standards. Stakeholder input is crucial for meaningful reforms in higher education.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate on your answer. (UPSC 2020)

Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. (USPC 2021)


Prelims Links:

Which of the following provisions of the Constitution does India have a bearing on Education? (UPSC 2012)

  1. Directive Principles of State Policy
  2. Rural and Urban Local Bodies
  3. Fifth Schedule
  4. Sixth Schedule
  5. Seventh Schedule


Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 2 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5


Ans- (d)


UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS – 17 June 2024 GS Paper 3:

Reforms Needed for India to Become a Developed Country

Syllabus: Indian Economy

 Source: HT

 Context: India aims to become a developed country by 2047. This will require a 7.5% annual growth in per capita income and a 9% GDP growth. The article highlights the reforms needed.


What is a developed country? 

A developed country is characterized by a mature and advanced economy with high levels of industrialization, technological infrastructure, and overall societal well-being. These countries are distinguished from developing nations, which are still progressing economically and socially. India, despite being the world’s fifth-largest economy with a GDP of 3.42 lakh crores USD, is currently classified as a developing nation.


Key characteristics of a developed country:

Economic FactorsSocial and Human Development FactorsTechnological and Innovation
High per capita income (USD 12,000 – 25,000+)Countries with an HDI score above 0.8 are considered developedAdvanced technological infrastructure
Diversified industrial and service sectorsHigh levels of education and literacy  and Access to quality healthcare and social servicesStrong emphasis on R&D
Robust infrastructure (transport, communication, utilities)Low infant mortality and high life expectancyHigh levels of innovation and productivity
Stable and efficient financial marketsRobust legal and political institutions with democratic governance


Where does India Stand? 

India lags behind both developed and some developing countries. While it is the fifth largest economy by GDP, its per capita income is significantly lower than China’s and the UK’s.


India’s achievement since Independence:

GDPIndia’s GDP rose from Rs 2.79 lakh crore in 1950-51 to an estimated Rs about 280 lakh crore currently.
ForexIndia’s foreign exchange reserves increased from Rs 911 crore in 1950-51 to over $650 billion USD currently. India has the sixth-largest forex reserves in the world.
Food ProductionFoodgrain production has grown from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to over 329 million tonnes currently.
Literacy RateThe literacy rate improved from 18.3% in 1951 to 78%. Female literacy rate increased from 8.9% to over 70%.


Major Challenges with India’s Goal of a Developed Economy

Economic GrowthJobless GrowthDespite 7.8% economic growth in FY 2023–24, job creation remains insufficient.
Agricultural Employment44% of the workforce is in low-productivity agriculture, contributing only 15% to GDP.
Job Creation Needs115 million jobs are needed by 2030 to meet the rising workforce.
Education and SkillsPoverty-Education-Skill TrapPoor primary and secondary education limits cognitive development and higher education benefits.
Skills Shortage150 million skilled workers are needed; nearly half of graduates are unemployable (India Skills Report 2021).
Education SystemNot adapting quickly enough to industry demands despite the National Education Policy.
Public DebtHigh Public DebtPublic debt at 81.9% of GDP raises fiscal sustainability concerns, crowding out private investment.
Income InequalityIncome Disparity22.6% of national income went to the top 1% in 2022-23, hindering inclusive growth.
HDI RankingIndia’s HDI score in 2022 was 0.644, placing it at 134th out of 192 countries.
Rural-Urban DivideUnbalanced DevelopmentUrban centres grow economically, while rural areas suffer from poverty and lack of infrastructure.
Potential Social UnrestNeglecting rural development could lead to social unrest.
Climate ChangeVulnerabilitiesEnvironmental degradation impacts health and undermines growth sustainability.
Economic RiskUp to 4.5% of India’s GDP could be at risk by 2030 due to climate change (RBI).
InfrastructureDeficit and Financing ChallengesThe infrastructure gap in transportation, power, and urban sectors is estimated at USD 1.5 trillion (World Bank).
Project DelaysIssues with land acquisition, environmental clearances, and regulatory hurdles cause delays and cost overruns.


Major Advantages of India (Towards Becoming a Developed Economy)

  1. Services Sector: India’s services sector accounts for over 50% of GDP, offering high-value jobs and attracting foreign investment.
  2. Demographic Dividend: India’s young population (median age of 28.2 years in 2023) presents a vast human capital pool for economic growth if properly skilled and employed.
  3. Government Initiatives: E.g., The Pradhan Mantri Gati Shakti National Master Plan drive infrastructure development, enhancing efficiency and economic activity.
  4. Digital Transformation and Startup Ecosystem: Digital India Initiative and Unified Payment Interface democratization drive digital revolution, with 8% year-on-year internet penetration growth in 2023.
  5. Economic Growth: Despite global uncertainties, India’s domestic demand shows resilience, with an expected over 7% real GDP growth in 2024-25.


What should be done?

  1. Sound Economy: Focus on sustained fiscal deficit reduction, targeting 4.5% of GDP by 2025-26.
  2. Skill Development for Demographic Dividend: Invest in vocational education and industry-aligned skills.
    1. Tier II cities should be focused as these new cities have the potential to generate 70% of the country’s new jobs and GDP over the next 20 years.
  3. Rural Development and Infrastructure: Prioritize rural infrastructure and promote agro-processing.
  4. Affordable Healthcare and Prevention: Increase healthcare spending and promote preventive measures.
  5. Innovative Infrastructure Financing: Explore new financing models (e.g. Crowdfunding) and public-private partnerships.
  6. Technology and Innovation Promotion: Boost R&D investment and establish innovation ecosystems.
  7. Blue Economy Harnessing: Develop sustainable maritime activities and coastal infrastructure.
  8. Formalizing Informal Sector: Implement portable social security and support startup hubs.
  9. Green Collar Jobs Creation: Train workforce for green sectors and incentivize green employment.
  10. Enhance revenue productivity of the tax system


Insta Links:


Mains Link: 

Q.1 “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy capable of increasing the industrial growth rate? (UPSC 2017)


Q.2 Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis the industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base? (UPSC 2014)


Prelims Links:

In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in others because: (2019)

(a) Poverty rates vary from State to State

(b) Price levels vary from State to State

(c) Gross State Product varies from State to State

(d) Quality of public distribution varies from State to State


Ans: (b)


Increase in absolute and per capita real GNP does not connote a higher level of economic development if (UPSC 2018)

(a) industrial output fails to keep pace with agricultural output.
(b) agricultural output fails to keep pace with industrial output.
(c) poverty and unemployment increase.
(d) imports grow faster than exports.


Ans: (c)


China’s ‘grey-zone’ warfare tactics and its impact

Syllabus: Internal Security/ International Relations

 Source: TH

 Context: China is using ‘grey-zone’ tactics against Taiwan involving sophisticated methods to frustrate the island’s leadership. This includes simulated audiovisuals depicting invasion scenarios and sustained pressure through military sorties and cognitive warfare tactics.


What is Grey-zone warfare?

Grey-zone warfare refers to a strategic approach where aggressors employ a combination of conventional and non-conventional methods to harm adversaries without triggering a full-scale military response. It operates in the ambiguous space between peace and overt conflict, utilizing tactics like cyberattacks, economic coercion, disinformation campaigns, and proxy forces to achieve strategic objectives.


Characteristics of Grey-zone Warfare:

  1. Below threshold operations: Aggressors employ non-military tools that don’t warrant a military response.
  2. Gradual bold steps: Actions unfold over time, often spanning years or decades, minimizing chances for decisive countermeasures.
  3. Lack of attributability: Aggressors evade accountability, making it challenging to attribute actions and formulate responses.
  4. Target specificity: Typically targets vulnerable nations with limited capacity for retaliation due to domestic or strategic constraints.


Background of China-Taiwan Conflict: 

The China-Taiwan conflict stems from the Chinese Civil War, with the Nationalist Party retreating to Taiwan in 1949. China claims Taiwan as a province, but Taiwan sees itself as a separate, democratic entity. This dispute over Taiwan’s status fuels tensions. Taiwan’s strategic location and semiconductor industry make it crucial.


What Techniques are being used by China as a part of its ‘Grey zone warfare’ against Taiwan:

Cognitive WarfareChina’s Weibo account released a 3D animation video depicting an invasion scenario of Taiwan’s areas in Taipei and Kaohsiung with land warship-based ballistic missile launchers.
Sustained Military PressureChina has maintained sustained pressure on Taiwan’s defence and Intelligence forces since 2020, with daily sorties conducted by PLA fighter jets, UAVs, strategic fighters, and early warning aircraft inducing wear-out within Taiwanese forces.
Intelligence GatheringUAVs are deployed to conduct intelligence work in the areas surrounding the island.
Ideological and PsychologicalPushing narratives within Taiwanese territory to thrust ideological choices upon its citizens by initiating public discussions on social media and garnering attention for the Chinese cause.
Economic WarfareChina has taken coercive economic measures, leveraging the cross-strait trade and business interdependence to seek concessions. Example: Unilateral suspension of preferential tax rates for chemical imports from Taiwan under the ECFA.


Other tactics being used by different states as part of Grey-Zone Warfare:

  1. Maritime militia: State-sponsored actors use non-state actors like “maritime militia” to harass coastal communities, disrupt trade routes, and test boundaries without triggering direct conflict.
    • Eg: China’s use of Coast Guard vessels and fishing fleets in the South China Sea against other claimants.
  2. Combat Drones: Armed drones pose new threats, targeting warships, and critical infrastructure, and conducting surveillance and intelligence gathering.
    • Eg: Houthi rebels in Yemen attacking ships in the Red Sea with drones.
  3. Persistent Piracy: While declining, Somali pirates still operate in the Indian Ocean, threatening shipping and hindering trade.
    • Eg: 2023 hijacking of Bulk carrier vessel MV Ruen in the Arabian Sea.
  4. Environmental Crimes: IUU or Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing depletes fish stocks, harms ecosystems, and disadvantages legitimate fishermen.
    • Eg: Large-scale IUU fishing by Chinese vessels in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean.


China’s Grey Zone Tactics against India:

  1. South China Sea Activities: China utilizes naval and civilian vessels to assert control over the South China Sea, causing tensions with neighbouring countries, including India.
  2. Infrastructure Construction in Border Areas: China builds infrastructure and establishes villages near India’s borders, reinforcing territorial assertions and gaining strategic advantages.
  3. Investments in Digital Technologies: China directs investments into Indian apps, media, and digital platforms, potentially influencing public perceptions and narratives.


How is India impacted due to these challenges?

  1. National Security Concerns: Proxy conflicts with non-state actors can destabilize coastal regions, threaten communication cables, and potentially escalate into regional tensions.
    • Eg: 2018 Maldives political crisis.
  2. Disruptions to trade: Piracy and grey-zone warfare attacks on shipping routes can cost India billions annually, impacting vital imports like oil and raw materials.
    • Eg: the current cost of shipping rose due to the Red Sea and Hormuz instability.
  3. Terrorism: Maritime terrorism poses a direct threat to coastal cities, critical infrastructure, and tourism-reliant communities.
    • Eg: 2008 Mumbai attacks.
  4. Pollution: Oil spills from accidents or deliberate dumping can devastate marine ecosystems, impacting fishing, tourism, and public health.
    • Eg: 2021 Sri Lanka oil spill.
  5. Climate change: Rising sea levels and increasing storm frequency threaten coastal infrastructure, displace communities, and exacerbate pollution concerns.
    • Eg: India is the 7th-most vulnerable country with respect to climate extremes (Germanwatch 2020).


India’s Preparedness against Grey-zone Warfare:

  1. Chief of Defence Staff: Coordinates the three Services (Army, Air Force, Navy).
  2. Self-reliance in Defence Manufacturing: Promoted through initiatives like Defence Procurement Procedure (DAP) 2020.
  3. Cooperation with like-minded countries: Signed agreements like the General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA) with the US.
  4. Other measures: Establishment of the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), among others.


Needful measures:

  1. Modernize Naval Capabilities: Invest in advanced submarines, drones, and electronic warfare systems to counter emerging threats like grey-zone activities and drone attacks.
  2. International Cooperation: Partner with regional and global powers to share intelligence, combat piracy, and address environmental crimes.
  3. Coastal Surveillance and Infrastructure: Enhance coast guard patrols, utilize satellite technology, and strengthen critical port infrastructure to deter attacks and monitor threats.
    • Eg: Coastal Radar Chain Project.
  4. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Implement stricter regulations, promote responsible fishing practices, and collaborate with neighbouring countries to combat illegal fishing.
  5. Climate Change Adaptation: Invest in coastal infrastructure resilience, develop early warning systems for natural disasters, and promote public awareness and preparedness.



In conclusion, the diverse challenges posed by the complex maritime domain demand innovative and collaborative solutions. India’s “Security and Growth for All in the Region” (SAGAR) initiative exemplifies a proactive approach, prioritizing both regional security and shared prosperity in the Indian Ocean.


Insta links:


Mains Links:

Q South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment. (UPSC 2016)


UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS – 17 June 2024 Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Dead zone


Context: NOAA forecasts an above-average summer “dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

  • A “dead zone” is an area in a body of water where the oxygen levels are so low that most marine life cannot survive. These zones are also known as hypoxic areas.



Dead zones typically form as a result of nutrient pollution from human activities, such as:

  • Agricultural Runoff
  • Urban Runoff
  • Atmospheric Deposition



  • Marine Life: Fish, shrimp, and other marine organisms either die or leave the area due to lack of oxygen.
  • Ecosystems: The depletion of marine life can disrupt food chains and ecosystems.
  • Economy: Fisheries and tourism can suffer due to the decline in marine populations and overall water quality.


National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage (NIIMH)

 Source: ET, PIB

 Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage (NIIMH) in Hyderabad as a Collaborating Centre for “Fundamental and Literary Research in Traditional Medicine” (CC IND-177) for four years.

  • This marks the first time a WHO Collaborating Centre has been established for this specific field.


About NIIMH:

  • NIIMH, under the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of Ayush, is recognized for its extensive medico-historical research in Ayurveda and related traditional medicine systems in India.
  • Established in 1956, NIIMH has contributed significantly through digital initiatives such as the AMAR Portal, which catalogues and digitizes Ayush manuscripts, and the SAHI Portal, which showcases medico-historical artefacts.
  • It also maintains a Medical Heritage Museum and Library with rare manuscripts and publishes the Journal of Indian Medical Heritage.



As a WHO Collaborating Centre, NIIMH will help standardize terminologies for Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Sowa-Rigpa, update the Traditional Medicine Module for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), and assist in developing research methodologies for Traditional Medicine.

Kavli Prize

 Source: IE

 Context: The Kavli Prize, named after Norwegian-American philanthropist Fred Kavli, donors’ significant achievements in astrophysics, neuroscience, and nanoscience.

  • Established by the Kavli Foundation in 2000, the prize is awarded biennially and includes a $1 million cash award per field, along with a medal and a scroll.
  • It mirrors the Nobel Prize but is considered broader in scope, as it recognizes contributions without the restriction of being made in the preceding year.
  • The inaugural Kavli Prize was awarded in 2008.


Defence Systems in News: Nagastra-1 and Iskander Missile

 Source: ET, HT

FeatureNagastra-1Iskander Missile
ContextIndian Army received the first batch of Nagastra-1 from Solar Industries, developed by Economic Explosives Ltd.Russia claimed to have struck the Ukrainian military airbase in Mirgorod.
DevelopmentIndigenous UAV-based munitions with over 75% domestic content.Road-mobile short-range ballistic missile system, service since 2006.
CapabilitiesHover, perform GPS-enabled precision strikes with 2-meter accuracy, and be safely recovered.Designed for tactical strikes on high-value land targets.
AltitudeDesigned for high-altitude operations above 4,500 meters.Not specified.
DetectionEvades radar detection; low acoustic signature.Employs manoeuvrable re-entry vehicles and decoys.
SurveillanceDay-night surveillance capabilities.Not specified.
OperationCapable of operating in extreme conditions.Uses inertial and optical guidance systems.
VariantsNot specified.Iskander-E: Range 280 km for export.

Iskander-K: Features a new cruise missile R-500 with a max range of 280 km.

Divya Drishti


Source: ET

Context: “Divya Drishti” is an advanced AI tool developed by the woman-led start-up Ingenious Research Solutions.

  • The tool integrates facial recognition with gait and skeleton analysis to enhance identification accuracy and reduce false positives and identity fraud.
  • This dual-approach biometric authentication system has versatile applications across various sectors, including defence, law enforcement, corporate, and public infrastructure.

Developed with technical guidance from DRDO’s Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) in Bangalore, “Divya Drishti” signifies a significant advancement in biometric technology.



UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS – 17 June 2024 Mapping:

The Group of Seven (G7)

 Source: Reuters

Context: The G7 summit was recently hosted by Italy.

  • India also participated in the G7 outreach session on Artificial Intelligence, Energy, Africa and the Mediterranean.


About G7 Group:

  • The Group of Seven (G7) (founded in 1975) ( formerly called Library Group; Group of Six (G6); Group of Eight(G8) (reversion)) is an intergovernmental organization made up of seven of the world’s largest advanced economies.
  • It includes Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.




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