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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 May 2024

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. The Treaty of Versailles played a pivotal role in the outbreak of World War II by fostering resentment, economic hardship, and political instability in Germany. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of treaty of Versailles in the outbreak of world war-II.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by briefly mentioning about treaty of Versailles.

Body:

First, write about the important provisions of the treaty imposed on Germany.

Next, write about the reasons in which the treaty became one of the reasons for the outbreak of second world war and to what extent it was responsible.

Next, write about the other factors responsible for the outbreak of the war.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the role of treat of Versailles in the beginning of world war-II.

Introduction

The Treaty of Versailles was a peace document signed at the end of World War I by the Allied powers and Germany. It took place in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France, on June 28, 1919, and officially came into force on January 10, 1920. The treaty aimed to address the aftermath of the war and prevent future conflicts.

Body

Important Provisions Imposed on Germany:

  • War Guilt Clause: Germany was held solely responsible for starting World War I. This clause placed the guilt squarely on Germany’s shoulders.
  • Territorial Losses: Germany lost significant territories, including Alsace and Lorraine (which went back to France), parts of Upper Silesia (given to Poland), and the Saar region.
  • Demilitarization: The Rhineland was demilitarized to act as a buffer zone between Germany and France.
  • Reparations: Germany was forced to pay reparations to France and Belgium, amounting to $31 billion.
  • Military Restrictions: Germany’s armed forces were limited, and it was prohibited from building tanks, aircraft, submarines, or battleships.

Impact on Germany and Resentment:

  • Economic Strain: The harsh reparations burdened the German economy, leading to widespread resentment.
  • National Humiliation: Many Germans viewed the peace terms as dishonorable, especially the war guilt clause.
  • Political Instability: The treaty contributed to political instability within Germany, creating fertile ground for extremist ideologies.

Role in the Outbreak of World War II:

  • Economic Crisis: The economic crisis of the 1930s exacerbated by the Great Depression further strained Germany’s economy and fueled discontent.
  • Rise of Fascism: The rise of fascist ideologies, particularly Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist Party (Nazi Party), gained traction due to the discontent caused by the treaty.
  • Rearmament: Germany’s rearmament efforts violated the treaty’s restrictions, leading to military buildup and tensions.
  • Appeasement: Western powers followed a policy of appeasement, hoping to avoid conflict by accommodating Germany’s demands. However, this approach failed to prevent war.
  • Territorial Expansion: Germany, Italy, and Japan sought territorial expansion, leading to aggressive actions in Europe and Asia.
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact: The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact) between Germany and the Soviet Union further destabilized the region.
  • Invasion of Poland: In September 1939, Germany’s invasion of Poland triggered World War II, with Britain and France declaring war on Germany.

Conclusion

The Treaty of Versailles, while aiming to prevent future conflicts, inadvertently contributed to the outbreak of World War II. Its punitive terms, economic strain, and political consequences in Germany set the stage for Hitler’s rise to power and the subsequent global conflict.

In summary, the Treaty of Versailles, though well-intentioned, had unintended consequences that shaped the course of history, ultimately leading to World War II. The lessons learned from this treaty continue to resonate in international relations today.

 

Topic: population and associated issues

2. What is the gender dividend? Strategies that promote gender equality can lead to sustainable economic growth and a more inclusive society by harnessing the gender dividend. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

India has the potential to reap extraordinary benefits by making the most of the gender dividend.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the gender dividend and the advantages it offers.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining gender dividend.

Body:

First, write about the importance of gender dividend – leading to sustainable economic growth, improved health and education outcomes, driving national progress and development, and a more inclusive society.

Next, write about the various policies that are needed to achieve the above – reducing gender gaps in education, employment, and participation. By encouraging women’s workforce participation, supporting female entrepreneurship, and investing in education and skill development etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The gender dividend refers to the economic and societal benefits that arise from promoting gender equality. By fully integrating women into the economy, societies can unlock a significant, underutilized potential for growth and development. This concept is akin to the demographic dividend, which emphasizes the economic growth potential when the working-age population is larger than the non-working-age population.

Body

Reasons hindering gender dividend due to inequality

  • India scores quite low in when it comes to gender inequality, according to latest UNDP Human development report, India is ranked 125 of 159 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII).
  • Labour participation: In terms of labour participation only 23.3% of women (79.1% men) above 15 years are part of India’s labour force.
  • Wage gap: Research from India’ leading diversity and inclusion consulting firm Avtar Group shows that women are paid 34% less than men for performing the same job with the same qualifications.
  • Lack of Economic Empowerment: Women are underrepresented in senior managerial position and overrepresented in low paying jobs. Oxford Survey shows that globally only 19% firms have a female senior manager.
  • Access to productive capital: It is harder for women to access funds and capital for farming, starting a business or for other developmental works.
  • Secondary Education for women is lower than man in majority of countries while this stands at less than 80% in India.
  • Social norms and stereotypes: Classifying men as “bread winners” and women pursuing jobs as “career women” was reported by Oxford University Survey. It also highlighted that most of the unpaid work is seen as a women’s job.

 

Measures to promote gender equality

 

  • Behavioural Nudge: For instance, by using taxes to incentivize fairly sharing child-care responsibilities, or by encouraging women and girls to enter traditionally male-dominated sectors such as the armed forces and information technology. Eg Supreme Court in India declared that women could now hold commanding positions in Army.
  • Paternity leaves for men, to share the responsibility of child rearing.
  • Incentivizing companies to employ women, and reach 50% target.
  • Gender Justice at Work
  • Bridging the wage gap for equal work.
  • Making work places safer through strong laws. India has enacted Sexual Harassment at workplaces act.
  • Promote diversity and anti-bias courses for all employees.
  • Comprehensive leadership training for women to excel in their fields.
  • Gender sensitization: Breaking the social barriers by gender sensitization and education at families, schools and workplaces. Eg : In the NCERT Books, gender roles, bias and prejudice inducing writings were removed.
  • Social security and financial literacy: Formalization of jobs should be pushed to avail benefits to many women. Until then, social security benefits should be provided to women in unorganized sector. Eg : Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme in India
  • Embedding financial literacy in programmes where women have significant representation could be a good starting point.
  • Strong laws and policies wrt equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits are needed to promote women’s representation in economy.
  • Political Representation: India has provided 33% reservation for women in the Panchayats and Local Bodies. Capacity Building and training can increase their capabilities further.

Way forward

  • Learning from the Nordic region, noteworthy participation of women in politics, institutions and public life is the catalyst for transformational change.
  • Women need to be equal participants in the labour force to pioneer the societal changes the world needs in this integral period of transition.
  • Every effort must be directed towards achieving gender parallelism by facilitating women in leadership and decision-making positions.
  • Social protection programmes should be gender-responsive and account for the differential needs of women and girls.
  • Research and scientific literature also provide unequivocal evidence that countries led by women are dealing with the pandemic more effectively than many others.

Conclusion

Gender equality is a human right which entitles all persons irrespective of their gender to live with dignity and with freedom. Gender equality is also a precondition for development and reducing of poverty. Gender shouldn’t be an unreasonable determining factor curbing the potential of women.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

3. Governors should adopt a non-partisan approach and respect the mandate of the elected government. Their actions should be guided by constitutional principles rather than political considerations. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various issues between the governor and state’s elected executive and steps needed to ensure a harmonious relations between the both.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing role of the governor in legislative process of the state.

Body:

First, write about the increasing politicization of the post of Governor and him/her acting as the ‘agent of centre’ and various responses of the state government to it. Mention the recent examples of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and West Bengal.

Next, write about the relook that is required in the appointment and powers of the governor vis-à-vis the state executive. Substantiate by citing various committees.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward in order to resolve the tussle between legislature and governor.

Introduction

Article 154 of the Constitution envisages Governor as the executive chief of the state. All executive actions are taken in his name. B R Ambedkar called the office of the Governor as the “office of dignity”. He is not an agent of the Centre, but the governor’s post in an independent Constitutional office. His office is the linchpin of Indian Cooperative Federalism.

Body:

Appointment of Governor:

Under the Articles 155 and 156, Governors in India are appointed directly by the President and holds office “during the pleasure of the President”.

Role of the Governor:

  • India invented the role of state governor after Independence to act as a conduit between the ceremonial head of state (the president) and the chief minister of each state, as the president’s eyes and ears in the country’s diverse and far-flung states.
  • Their duty is to be neutral guardians of the complex relationship between the federal government and state governments belonging to different political parties.
  • But this role got diluted as Supreme Court said in one of the judgements ‘agents of the centre’.

Criticism of regarding the Governor Posts

  • The governor selections have come to be made on grounds of political partisanship, favouritism, patronage and cronyism.
  • The governors are becoming the eyes and ears for Central Government.
  • The misuse of the office of the Governor for political purposes to dispose the rival political parties’ government by invoking the Article 356 on dubious or doubtful grounds.
  • Appointment of Judges as governors.
  • Appointment of people involved in the active politics of the State.
  • Removal of Governor merely because he is not on the same political or ideological page as that of the government, this happens despite constitutional bench saying
  • A Governor won’t be removed on the ground that he is out of sync with the policies and ideologies of the Union Government or the party in power at the Centre.
  • Nor would he be removed on the ground that the Union Government has lost confidence in him.

Recommendations made regarding the Governor Posts

Sarkaria Commission Report Recommendations

  • “The Governors tenure of office of five years in a State should not be disturbed except very rarely and that too for some extremely compelling reason. It is very necessary to assure a measure of security of tenure to the Governor’s office.”
  • Governor should be an eminent person and not belong to the state where he is to be posted.
  • State chief minister should have a say in the appointment of governor
  • Governor should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in recent past.
  • Governor should not be a member of the ruling party.
  • Governor should be removed before his tenure only on the grounds as if aspersions are cast on his morality, dignity, constitutional propriety, etc.

The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution recommendations:

  • Governor’s appointment should be entrusted to a committee comprising the prime minister, the home minister, the speaker of the Lok Sabha and the chief minister of the concerned state.
  • If they have to be removed before completion of their term, the central government should do so only after consultation with the Chief Minister.

The Punchhi commission recommendations

  • The person who is slated to be a Governor should not have participated in active politics at even local level for at least a couple of years before his appointment.
  • For office of Governor, the doctrine of pleasure should endand should be deleted from the constitution. Governor should not be removed at whim of central government. Instead, a resolution by state legislature should be there to remove Governor.
  • There should be provisions for impeachment of the Governor by the state legislature along the same lines as that of President by President.
  • The convention of making the Governors as chancellors of universities should be done away with.
  • The commission recommended for “localising emergency provisions” under Articles 355 and 356, contending that localised areas— either a district or parts of a district — be brought under Governor’s rule instead of the whole state.

The Supreme Court’s interpretation

  • In 2010, a constitutional bench of the Supreme Court interpreted these provisions and laid down some binding principles (B.P. Singhal v. Union of India), the Supreme Court held:
  • President, in effect the central government, has the power to remove a Governor at any time without giving him or her any reason, and without granting an opportunity to be heard.
  • However, this power cannot be exercised in an arbitrary, capricious or unreasonable manner.  The power of removing Governors should only be exercised in rare and exceptional circumstances for valid and compelling reasons.
  • The mere reason that a Governor is at variance with the policies and ideologies of the central government, or that the central government has lost confidence in him or her, is not sufficient to remove a Governor.  Thus, a change in central government cannot be a ground for removal of Governors, or to appoint more favourable persons to this post.
  • Such a decision, to remove a Governor can be challenged in a court of law.

Conclusion

Despite several commissions appointed by Government themselves and the Supreme Court guidelines, the post of governor is misused again and again.

It is, however, time for a thorough review of the Governor’s powers and the process of appointment and removal.

  • New rules and conventions may need to be put in place so that Governor’s constitutional mandate is strengthened.
  • All part conference to review the role of the Governors, the powers exercised by him and the manner in which he should be appointed and removed.
  • The Constitution should be amended and security of tenure must be provided to the Governors. The judgment of the Supreme Court delivered in B. P. Singhal case is the law of the land and the Government should respect it.
  • The Governors should be treated with dignity, and should not be fired only for political considerations.
  • The Constitution of the land prohibits the arbitrary exercise of power and the Government is not an exception to the equality law.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

4. By addressing both natural and anthropogenic causes of landslides through comprehensive strategies, the risks associated with these hazardous events can be significantly mitigated. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The PrintInsights on India

Why the question:

More than 2,000 people could be buried alive by a massive landslide in Papua New Guinea last week.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse the natural anthropogenic causes of landslides and to account for their increased risk.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce landslide by defining them. Give examples of some major landslides in the recent past.

Body:

Mention the natural factors behind the causes of landslides in India with a few examples. Mention the areas which are most prone to landslides. Draw a small illustrative map showing the same.

Next bring in the instances of human activity induced landslides. Bring forth the anthropogenic factors responsible for causing Landslides. Substantiate with facts and figures regarding the incidence of landslides.

Reason as to why the increase in anthropogenic induced landslides is alarming and cause of concern. Give solutions to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Landslides are sudden physical mass movement of soil, rocks and debris down the mountain slope because of heavy rainfall, earthquake, gravity and other factors. As per recent NCRB report Landslide and cyclones caused 3.2% (264) and 0.4% (33) of the deaths respectively.

More than 2,000 people could be buried alive by a massive landslide in Papua New Guinea last week.

Body

 

 The various causes of landslides are:

  • Natural causes
    • Landslides are generally associated with natural calamities like earthquake, volcanic eruptions, floods, cloudburst, etc.
    • Long spell of rainfall
    • Loose soil cover and sloping terrain
  • Anthropogenic causes
    • Rapid urbanization and changes in land use patterns
    • Rampant deforestation and mining activities like blasting and quarrying, etc.
    • Increased industrialisation leading to climate change and weather disturbances
    • Change in river flow due to construction of dams, barriers, etc.
    • indiscriminate chopping down of trees.
    • slash and burn cultivation technique called ‘JHUM,’
    • fast paced road construction
    • Ever increasing population, grazing, urbanization etc. has destroyed the dense natural evergreen forest cover.

Measures needed to control landslides are

  • Structural measures:
    • Stopping Jhum cultivation.
    • Store Excess water in catchments areas to reduce the fury of flash floods, recharge the ground water and improve the environment. Dig runoff collection ponds in the catchments.
    • Grow fuel / fodder trees in all the common lands.
    • Plantation in barren areas, especially on slopes, with grass cover is an important component of integrated watershed management programme.
    • Grazing should be restricted. The grasses of industrial importance should also be planted so that there is some economic return to the farmers as well.
    • Use the surface vegetative cover to protect the land from raindrop’s beating action, bind the soil particles and decrease the velocity of flowing water.
    • Construction of engineering structures like buttress beams, retaining walls, geogids, nailings, anchors to stabilise the slopes.
  • Non-structural measures:
    • Environmental Impact Assessment of the infrastructure projects before commencing the work.
    • Declaration of eco-sensitive zones where mining and other industrial activities are banned. Eco-tourism should be promoted.
    • Hazard mapping of the region to identify the most vulnerable zones and take measures to safeguard it.
    • Local Disaster Management force for quick relief and safety of the people affected by landslides.
    • Teaching people about landslides & ways to mitigate.
    • Constructing a permanent assessment team comprising scientists & geologists for better mitigation and adaptation techniques.
    • Involving the local people for sustainable development of Himalayas

Way forward:

The need of the hour is to invest in long-term crisis response mechanisms and resilience solutions. A few immediate steps include:

  • investing in resilience planning, especially in flood prevention and rapid response.
  • Climate proofing the infrastructure such as by applying road stabilization technologies for fragile road networks and strengthening existing structures like bridges, culverts and tunnels.
  • Strengthening embankments with adequate scientific know-how.
  • Reassessing development of hydropower and other public infrastructure by EIA/SIA.
  • Investing in a robust monitoring and early warning system.
  • Establishing implementable policies and regulatory guidelines to restrict detrimental human activities, including responsible eco- and religious tourism policies.
  • Investing in training and capacity building to educate and empower local communities to prevent and manage risks effectively.
  • In a recent article in Nature, Maharaj K. Pandit, a Himalayan ecologist, says in recent years, the Himalayas have seen the highest rate of deforestation and land use changes.
  • He suggests that the upper Himalayas should be converted into a nature reserve by an international agreement.
  • He also says the possibility of a Himalayan River Commission involving all the headwater and downstream countries needs to be explored.

 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;

5. The Minimum Support Price (MSP) system in India, designed to protect farmers from sharp declines in market prices, faces significant limitations. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The article discusses that import policy must be well-integrated with minimum support policy.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the current limitations of MSP and changes that are needed in it.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the defining the concept of MSP.

Body:

Frist, write about the various objectives behind MSP.

Next, write about the reasons as to why MSP has not achieved its stated objectives – MSP distorts the basic logic of the supply-demand mechanism, slows down the process of diversification, and is economically a very expensive and inefficient policy instrument, besides leading to massive leakages and corruption.

Next, discuss what needs to be done. Highlight the efforts of the government in this direction

Conclusion:

Write a way forward.

Introduction

Minimum Support Price (MSP)is the rate at which the government buys grains from farmers. Currently, it fixes MSPs for 23 crops grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons.

Body

Yes, MSP helps farmers to an extent

  • MSP has been beneficial in transferring incomes to rural areas and to counter farm level inflation.
  • It can also counter the agricultural distress brought on by natural hazards in the country. It gives farmers hope of earning more in the new sowing season.
  • In the last few years, India has become a net importer of pulses. Massive hike in the MSP of these crops will encourage the farmers to grow nutritional crops. It will help in changing the cropping pattern which was long due.
  • A higher MSP regime will also help in achieving the Government’s target of doubling farmer’s income by 2022.
  • It also acts as an incentive for farmers to produce the crop which is in short supply.
  • Higher profits for the farmer will also help them to invest in necessary infrastructure and equipment.
  • The MSP to some extent will protect the farmer by guaranteeing a minimum floor price so that they can plan in advance for the next season.

However, MSP is fraught with limitations

The trouble with MSP is that while it is touted as an all-important factor for farmers promising an instant rise in their income and stability, it also has many drawbacks in implementation. This affects the price realisation of farmers, in reality for several reasons.

  • Methodology: MSP covers numerous costs such as the cost of sowing (A2) and labour (FL). These considerations are controversial with suggestions that it should be based on comprehensive costs (C2), which also include land rent costs.
  • Inflation: Too much of a hike on MSP either paves way for inflationary effects on the economy, with a rise in prices of food grains and vegetables, or loss to government treasury if it decides to sell at a lower price as compared to the higher MSP it bought at.
  • Diverse factors: MSP is a nationwide single price policy. However, the actual costing for production varies from place to place, more severely so in areas lacking irrigation facilities and infrastructure. Thus, not all farmers have equal benefits.
  • Procurement at MSP is flawed: First, procurement of wheat and paddy for meeting the requirement of the public distribution system (PDS) is undertaken largely by state governments.
    • Of the total procurement of wheat and paddy from farmers, the Food Corporation of India’s (FCI’s) share is less than 10%.
    • In the north-east and many other states, procurement operations are almost non-existent and farmers are forced to sell below MSP.
    • As the experiences of these schemes show, the benefit of higher MSPs for kharif crops or rabi, is unlikely to be available to most farmers as the states lack adequate storage capacity, working capital and manpower for undertaking large-scale procurement of all commodities.
    • The MSP-based procurement system is also dependent on middlemen, commission agents and APMC officials, which smaller farmers find difficult to get access to.
  • Agri-Infrastructure: Hiking the MSP without investing in infrastructure is just a short-term play. While it does deliver immediate results, long-term developments to back-it up are also important.
  • Environmental harm: It degrades the soil because of irrespective of the soil condition, some crops are preferred which have MSP over them which results in exploitation of group water resources, alkalinity, decrease in the production of the crops in long run and much harm to environment.

Conclusion

The government should shift its focus from providing only price support to farmers and focus on building better infrastructure, minimizing the gap between farmers and the market, land reforms, policy reforms to increase flow of credit to farmers, establishing food-processing industries for perishable goods, providing better irrigation facilities etc so, that agriculture emerges as a viable means of sustenance.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us.” – Helen Keller

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning.

Body:

Write about the importance of focussing on the positive side after a setback/loss. Mention the lessons or opportunities that are present in failure and that can lead to further success. Highlight the role of patience and perseverance. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote.

Introduction

It is akin to human nature to feel strong emotions and one among them is desire and the other is grief/feeling the loss of something. Life is not an uphill trajectory and is like a sine wave. Sometimes we lose something precious or close to us. We can only move forward and cannot be hinged on the loss. More often, happiness in other forms comes along the way and this gets overlooked if we are fixated on the things that we lost or have no control over.

Focusing on lost opportunities can hinder personal growth and prevent us from recognizing and seizing new possibilities.

Body

Importance of being open to new possibilities

  • Emotional Well-being: Dwelling on missed opportunities can lead to feelings of regret, sadness, and frustration, which can negatively impact mental health. By focusing on future possibilities, we can cultivate a more positive and hopeful outlook, reducing stress and enhancing overall emotional well-being.
  • Productivity and Growth: Obsessing over past mistakes or missed chances consumes time and energy that could be better spent on productive activities. Embracing new opportunities allows us to learn, grow, and improve, fostering a mindset of continuous development and progress.
  • Adaptability: Life is unpredictable, and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances is crucial for success. By focusing on new avenues, we develop resilience and flexibility, which are essential traits for navigating life’s inevitable ups and downs.
  • Opportunity Cost: Every moment spent regretting the past is a moment not spent exploring and taking advantage of new opportunities. The concept of opportunity cost highlights the potential benefits we miss out on when we focus on what is lost instead of what can be gained.
  • Perspective and Gratitude: Moving forward encourages us to appreciate the lessons learned from past experiences and to be grateful for new opportunities. This shift in perspective can lead to a more fulfilling and enriched life, as we learn to see challenges as stepping stones rather than obstacles.
  • Innovation and Creativity: Looking ahead fosters a mindset of innovation and creativity. When we are open to new possibilities, we are more likely to think outside the box, explore unconventional solutions, and create novel ideas that can lead to significant breakthroughs.
  • Building New Relationships: New opportunities often come with the chance to meet new people and build new relationships. These relationships can provide support, inspiration, and collaboration, contributing to personal and professional growth.

 

Conclusion

By not looking back on lost opportunities and instead focusing on new avenues, we can enhance our emotional well-being, increase productivity, and foster a mindset of growth and adaptability. This forward-looking approach enables us to make the most of life’s ever-changing landscape, turning potential setbacks into opportunities for development and success.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Moral indignation is jealousy with a halo.” ― H.G. Wells

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

First, explain moral indignation and substantiate with examples.

Next, write about the correlation of moral indignation with that of Jealousy with halo. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

“Those who can’t, will make sure that those who can, don’t” captures the essence of the quote.

Indignation is anger aroused by something unjust, unworthy, or mean. Moral indignation is typically a reactive emotion of anger over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice of another. It is akin to what is called the sense of injustice.

Body

Moral indignation introduces an ethical element to this emotion. To be righteous is to position yourself as morally ‘correct’. Another term for this concept is therefore righteous anger.

In other words, a state of moral indignation effectively says, ‘I am right to be angry about this situation’.   However, morality is not reality. People vary in their beliefs and attitudes about life’s rights and wrongs. Therefore, moral indignation is typically murky territory as people assert their opinions.

Eg: The teacher became indignant when fired from their job for misconduct.

Righteous indignation is not self-righteousness in which people feel proud of themselves and think that they are always right and no one is better than them.

Moral outrage is external-directed energy. It is a form of reactive emotion regarding Anger that emerges when faced with a situation concerning offensive attitudes, mistreatment, or injustice. Sometimes someone in your life does things that don’t meet your standards and expectations, or someone does such an unjust act against the laws of society and the laws of nature. Anger can occur when negative feelings are sparked and wrongful actions and behaviors come to blame. Under such circumstances, one gets filled with rage.

But this may also be purely out of jealousy that we show such behaviour against others. We may feel inadequate in front of others and inflict such judgement upon them by taking a false moral high ground.

Moral indignation is considered a positive thing when someone with this type of anger is on the right side. Or when someone feels an adrenaline rush when thinking about a situation that is not morally fair or right. It must not be confused with self-righteousness.

If something is happening against the laws of nature, acts of society, and laws of humanity. And you are getting mad at it; then your Anger is righteous indignation. Suppose you want to change that unfair treatment. Or you may be hurt because other people are not considering the unjust situations dangerous. But you wish to spread justice and righteousness; then your Anger is a positive thing.

Here is the example of Mahatma Gandhi. He used his reactive emotion of Anger for a productive purpose and used it wisely. India was under British rule for over 250 years. He used the positive power of righteous indignation to compel the British to leave India. It shows that righteous Anger is a good thing if we use it as a positive power.

Conclusion

It has both aspects to it and depends on the perception of the person who is thinking about righteousness. Therefore, one must be careful about moral beliefs and ethics before using it as a yard stick to judge others or take any action. An honest impartial inquiry of thought and action is required before we react to any person or a situation.


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