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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 17 May 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. The ‘constitutional reforms’ of 1909 introduced limited self-governance by expanding legislative councils and including Indian members, however the reforms primarily served to placate moderate Indian leaders without relinquishing significant power. Critically comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Morley-Minto reforms were another tool of despotism rather than being constitutional reforms.

Directive word: 

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving the context for the introduction of the Reforms of 1909 such as the dissatisfaction of the moderates of the Indian Councils Act, 1892 and the rise of the Extremists in the arena of Indian leaders.

Body:

Briefly mention the key changes brought in by the reforms of 1909 and then why it cannot be termed as “Constitutional reform”, as it brought out minor additive changes only and not met the demands of the Indian leaders genuinely such as provision for asking questions and supplementary questions but at the same time the question may be rejected, further the Indian representatives could not question on many forms of expenditure of the British etc.

Mention why the reform was termed Benevolent Despotism, as the British tried to paint a colour of benevolence to the reforms by bringing small additive changes to the existing provisions but it was still an act of despotism as there was no substantial reform meeting the needs or demands of the Indian representatives in the legislative council. The introduction of separate electorates which formalised the British policy of divide and rule.

Conclusion:

Write about the impact of the reforms and response of the nationalists to it.

Introduction

The Morley-Minto reforms named after the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs Lord John Morley and the Viceroy Lord Minto was the alternative name given to Indian Councils Act 1909. It introduced for the first time the method of election, an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians in the governance. The Act amended the Indian Councils Acts of 1861 and 1892.

Body:

Background of the Act

  • In October 1906, a group of Muslim elites called the Shimla Deputation, led by the Agha Khan, met Lord Minto and demanded separate electorates for the Muslims and representation in excess of their numerical strength in view of ‘the value of the contribution’ Muslims were making ‘to the defence of the empire’.
  • The same group quickly took over the Muslim League, initially floated by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca along with Nawabs Mohsin-ul- Mulk and Waqar-ul-Mulk in December 1906.
  • The Muslim League intended to preach loyalty to the empire and to keep the Muslim intelligentsia away from the Congress.
  • John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India, and the Conservative Viceroy of India, Minto, believed that cracking down on uprising in Bengal was necessary but not sufficient for restoring stability to the British Raj after Lord Curzon’s partitioning of Bengal.
  • They believed that a dramatic step was required to put heart into loyal elements of the Indian upper classes and the growing Westernized section of the population.

Features of the Act

  • It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
  • British retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
  • The elected members were to be indirectly elected. The local bodies were to elect an electoral college, which in turn would elect members of provincial legislatures, who in turn would elect members of the central legislature.
  • It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.
  • It provided for the first time for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and GovernorsSatyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.
  • It introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. Thus, the Act ‘legalized communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
  • It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.

Evaluation of the Reforms:

  • The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer and could afford no answer to the Indian political problem. Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India.
  • The position of the Governor- General remained unchanged and his veto power remained undiluted and the Act was successfully maintained relentless constitutional autocracy.
  • The ‘constitutional’ reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates.
  • The Government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism.
  • The officials and the Muslim leaders often talked of the entire community when they talked of the separate electorates, but in reality, it meant the appeasement of a small section of the Muslim elite only.
  • Congress considered separate electorate to be undemocratic and hindering the development of a shared Hindu-Muslim Indian national feeling.
  • Besides, system of election was too indirect and it gave the impression of infiltration of legislators through a number of sieves.
  • And, while parliamentary forms were introduced, no responsibility was conceded, which sometimes led to thoughtless and irresponsible criticism of the Government.
  • Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use the opportunity to debate in the councils by demanding universal primary education, attacking repressive policies and drawing attention to the plight of indentured labour and Indian workers in South Africa.
  • The reforms of 1909 gave to the people of the country a shadow rather than substance.

The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:

  • It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time, though previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils.
  • The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.
  • It also gave recognition to the elective principle as the basis of the composition of legislative council for the first time.
  • It gave some further avenues to Indians to ventilate their grievances. They also got opportunity to criticize the executives and make suggestions for better administration.
  • After Jinnah’s death in September 1948, Pakistan lurched towards Islamic orthodoxy and Dalits faced mounting attacks.

Conclusion:

Indian Council Act of 1909 was instituted to placate the moderates and appeasement to the disseminate Muslims from National Movement by granting them separate electorate. The people had demanded self-government but what they were given was ‘benevolent despotism’.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Military diplomacy is crucial for India to promote national interests, ensure regional stability, and assert itself as a responsible global power. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

India’s renewed military diplomacy involves strategic deployment of defense attachés in key regions like Africa and West Asia

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the significance of India’s Military diplomacy.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write in detail about the importance of Military diplomacy – strengthens alliances, enhances its strategic posture, and promotes regional stability, bolsters its indigenous defence industry, and projects its soft power and strategic culture etc.

Next, in detail, write about the ways India leverages its military diplomacy – gaging in bilateral and multilateral military exercises, signing defence cooperation agreements, and offering training and humanitarian assistance and further ways to make it more effective. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India’s renewed thrust on military diplomacy is significant. Given our growing geopolitical interests, it is imperative to calibrate engagements and develop leverages to promote national interest. India will be sending new defence attachés to Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Mozambique and Djibouti, the last a strategically located country in the Horn of Africa that overlooks the crucial maritime route through the Gulf of Aden.

Body

About military diplomacy

  • In recent times, a military or defence attaché, also called a defence advisor, has become a permanent feature at embassies in most countries.
  • The position is always held by a serving military officer supported by other officers, depending on bilateral relations and strategic requirements.
  • India maintains separate Army, Navy and Air Force attachés in big countries with which it maintains defence ties. The officer and his deputies are given diplomatic status.
  • Primarily, military diplomacy uses military assets and engagements to achieve strategic objectives in foreign policy.
    • For a country like India, with a long military history and growing geopolitical interests, it is imperative to calibrate its military engagements and develop leverages for promoting national interest, in a rapidly evolving international multipolar global order.
  • Assisting the ambassador with crucial inputs on developments in his domain of work and file reports to the Ministry of Defence in Delhi are also integral parts of the defence attaché’s role.
  • Military exports: The export of military hardware is an important part of this initiative.
    • Yerevan has acquired the PINAKA multi barrel rocket launchers , anti-tank missiles, rockets and anti-drone systems from India.
    • The Philippines has bought the Brahmos missiles from India under a $375-million agreement and the defence attaché’s office in Manila will be strengthened.

Significance of military diplomacy for India

  • Intelligence gathering: The main functions of a defence attaché is to gather information, report on developments in the defence sector, liaison with the defence forces of the host country, handle defence-related exchanges, coordinate defence procurement for India’s armed forces, and keep track of advances in military technologies.
  • Provide training: India also provides training to military officers from many countries who attend courses at the Indian Military Academy, Dehradun, the National Defence College, Delhi, and the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington.
    • The defence attaché coordinates such training programmes.
  • Covert intelligence: It is said they also are a part of a country’s espionage network to gather intelligence. These functions are part of the international legal framework of diplomatic relations. During the Cold War, there were instances of defence attachés being expelled by the US and the Soviet Union.
  • Humanitarian aspects: The attaché also plays a crucial role in coordinating Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief, whose primary actors overseas are the Navy and Air Force. The other overseas responsibility is deployment for the UN Peacekeeping Operations, for which deployment is from the Indian Army.

Way forward

  • India’s foreign policy trajectory has evolved since the end of Cold War—from non-alignment to multi-alignment and strategic autonomy—in its quest to be a leading power.
  • In an era wherein the global geopolitical and geoeconomic landscape is changing rapidly, India’s foreign policy has adapted with major and subtle changes under PM Narendra Modi’s leadership.
  • India’s decision to open new defence attaché offices, the majority of them in African nations, is a significant policy initiative.

Conclusion

Defence diplomacy is critical for India’s relations in West Asia. India conducts joint exercises with countries like the UAE, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel and Oman. From the traditional domain of energy, India has steadily upped its military-security cooperation with countries in this region. India’s ties with West Asia have broken restrictions of the old paradigm and branched out into defence and security sectors like counterterrorism and cybersecurity.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. India’s pharmaceutical industry stands at a crucial juncture where enhancing research and development (R&D), fostering innovation, and maintaining high-quality manufacturing are pivotal for sustained growth and global competitiveness. Discuss (250 words)

Difficulty level:  Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article discusses the Indian pharmaceutical sector’s need to transition from volume-based growth to value-based leadership.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the strengths and weaknesses in the pharmaceutical industry and to suggest adequate measures to address the issues.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by highlighting the extent of pharmaceutical industry in India.

Body:

First, mention the potential of pharma industry – India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally. Indian pharmaceutical sector supplies over 50% of global demand for various vaccines, 40% of generic demand in the US and 25% of all medicine in the UK. Globally, India ranks 3rd in terms of pharmaceutical production by volume and 14th by value.

Next, write about the limitations and ways to overcome.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Indian pharmaceutical industry is one of the major contributors to the Indian economy and it is the world’s third-largest industry by volume. The Indian pharmaceutical industry’s success can be credited to its world-class capabilities in formulation development, entrepreneurial abilities of its people, and the vision of its business leaders to establish India’s footprint in the United States and other large international markets.

Body

Strengths of Indian Pharmaceutical Sector

  • According to the Economic Survey of 2020-21, the Indian pharmaceuticals sector is expected to expand multifold and become a $ 130 billion industry by 2030, while medicine spending is projected to grow rapidly too, leading India to become one of the top 10 countries in terms of such expenditure.
  • Potential of Pharma sector: The Indian pharmaceutical industry, valued at $41 billion, is expected to grow to $65 billion by 2024 and $120-130 billion by 2030, noted the new Economic survey.
  • Rise in exports: Indian pharma exports have registered a growth of 103 percent since 2013-14. This happens to be Pharma Sector’ best export performance ever till 2021-22.
  • Positive growth: Drug formulations, biologicals have consistently registered positive growth and the highest increase in absolute terms in recent months.
    • This led to a rise in its share to 7.1 percent in April-November 2020 from 5 percent in April-November 2019, making it the second-largest exported commodity among the top 10 export commodities.
    • This shows that India has the potential to be the ‘pharmacy of the world’”, the survey said.
  • In 1969, Indian pharmaceuticals had a 5 per cent share of the market in India, and global pharma had a 95 per cent share. By 2020, it was the reverse, with Indian pharma having an almost 85 per cent share and global, 15 per cent.
  • Significant advantage: The availability of a significant raw material base and skilled workforce have enabled India to emerge as an international manufacturing hub for generic medicines.
  • Further, India is the only country with the largest number of USFDA compliant pharma plants (more than 262 including APIs) outside of the US.
  • Capacity: The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that India can not only innovate but also rapidly distribute time-critical drugs to every part of the globe that needs it.
  • Global leader: Presently, over 80% of the antiretroviral drugs used globally to combat AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are supplied by Indian pharmaceutical firms.

Issues facing the Pharma industry:

  • Overdependence: Indian pharma industries import about 80% of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients(API) from China. The API forms the base of drugs. With trade-wars at global levels and wavering bilateral relations, there is a looming threat which can stall the Indian pharma industries. In FY19, Indian pharma companies imported bulk drugs and intermediates worth $2.4 million from China.
  • Compliance issues and good manufacturing practices: Diversifying the global market has been a problem with countries China and USA imposing Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary(SPS) barriers of WTO against generic drugs. The selective targeting by US Food and Drug Administration and Chinese Drug regulators are a problem still.
  • Drug Price Control Order: The companies sight that the reforms of the Government for the essential medicines has caused them to lower the price of drugs. This has been done by the Government for the betterment of the public.
  • Stronger IP regulations: IP regulation has always been a thorn in the skin for the companies, especially the foreign companies. The companies strongly feel that the rules have to be amended and the so-called victim of the lax regulations have been the foreign entrants.
  • Because of fewer costs associated with generic medicines, multiple applications for generic drugs are often approved to market a single product; this creates competition in the marketplace globally, typically resulting in lower prices. Pharma sector in India is also facing steep headwinds on account of this.
  • There is a lack of proper assessment of the performance of the pharmaceutical industry and its efficiency and productivity and due to this many plants have not survived.
  • Unregulated online pharmacies or e-pharmacies emerging in India have been a major concern for authorized setups.
  • There has been a significant drop in the flow of prescriptions as the Indian pharmaceutical industry has been witnessing a decline in the overall quality of its medical representatives (MRs). This is mainly on account of lack of training and support by the industry.
  • In countries such as Russia, one requires to be a medical graduate to be a pharma sales representative. In the European Union, one needs to pass stringent examinations to become an MR. Once they qualify, they need to renew their certification every three years. But in India, even non-graduates are performing as MRs without proper guidance.

Measures needed:

  • India’s strong innovation capabilities aided partnerships would help in overcoming these problems.
  • Developing our R&D sector to reduce dependency on foreign countries for raw materials
  • The introduction of pharmaceutical product patents and the mandatory implementation of good manufacturing practices is the need of the hour.
  • It is necessary for the Indian pharmaceutical industry to become globally competitive through world-class manufacturing capabilities, with improved quality and a higher efficiency of production, and there is a need to stress on the up-gradation of R&D capabilities.
  • Training and development of human resources for the pharmaceutical industry and drug research and development should be done accordingly;
  • There is also a need to promote public-private partnership for the development of the pharmaceuticals industry; promote environmentally sustainable development of the pharmaceutical industry; and enable the availability, accessibility, and affordability of drugs.
  • Improvement in industrial practices to provide better training and support services for employees to perform their job functions.
  • Using multilateral organisation like WTO against the illegal trade practices.
  • Funding for the pharma companies might be a way to move forward.
  • IPR Think Tank formed by the Government to draft stronger national IP policies.

Conclusion:

The affordability of healthcare is an issue of concern even in India, and people here would welcome some clarity on the principles of fair pricing vis-à-vis medical products. It is important that the accused companies are given a good hearing. The Government of India has taken up a number of initiatives to create an ecosystem that fosters manufacturing in pharma industries.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. A trade imbalance can have significant implications for the Indian economy. India must manage its trade balance more effectively, ensuring sustainable economic growth and stability. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

India’s merchandise exports, which shrank over 3% in 2023-24 — a year marred by multiple geopolitical and logistical disruptions to global trade — are off to a positive start this year, but only just.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the trade imbalance and its impact on the Indian economy.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context.

Body:

Frist, write about the impact of trade imbalance will have on the Indian economy. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to keep the trade imbalance in acceptable limits.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

A trade imbalance can severely impact the Indian economy, leading to currency depreciation, inflation, and increased external debt. A trade imbalance occurs when a nation’s imports surpass its exports, leading to a deficit in its trade balance. In the case of India, where economic development and global integration are central to its growth narrative, effectively managing its trade balance holds significant importance.

Body

Trade imbalance and impact

  • India export performance
  • India’s merchandise exports grew by 1.07% in April 2024, amounting to $34.99 billion.
  • This modest growth follows a 3% decline in 2023-24, amid geopolitical and logistical disruptions.
  • Notable growth in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronics, and petroleum products.
  • Trade Deficit: Imports rose by 10.25% to over $54 billion due to higher oil and gold prices.
    • The trade deficit reached $19.1 billion, the highest in four months.
    • Sectoral challenges: Labour-intensive sectors like garments and footwear are losing ground to competitors like Bangladesh and Vietnam.
      • Addressing quality concerns and labour/environmental issues is crucial.
      • Reinvigorating agricultural exports, especially with healthy monsoon prospects.

 

Measures needed to boost exports

  • Boost Export Competitiveness: Enhance productivity in labor-intensive sectors like garments, footwear, and electronics.
    • Improve product quality and address environmental and labor concerns.
  • Diversify Export Markets: Expand trade relationships beyond traditional Western markets.
    • Tap into emerging markets in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
  • Support Domestic Manufacturing:
    • Implement policies to strengthen the “Make in India” initiative.
    • Provide incentives for domestic production to reduce import dependency.
  • Encourage Value-added Exports:
    • Promote the export of high-value products over raw materials.
    • Invest in research and development to innovate and enhance product offerings.
  • Regulate Imports Prudently:
    • Implement strategic import restrictions on non-essential items.
    • Promote the use of domestically produced alternatives.
  • Improve Trade Infrastructure:
    • Develop better logistics, port facilities, and trade-related infrastructure.
    • Simplify customs procedures to facilitate smoother export-import processes.
  • Leverage Trade Agreements:
    • Negotiate favorable trade agreements to open new markets for Indian products.
    • Ensure that these agreements protect domestic industries and promote fair trade practices.
  • Focus on Agricultural Exports:
    • Reinvigorate agricultural exports with better support and incentives.
    • Ensure compliance with international standards to boost global competitiveness.
  • Monetary and Fiscal Policies:
    • Maintain stable exchange rates and control inflation to make exports more competitive.
    • Use fiscal policies to support sectors critical for exports.

Conclusion

Ultimately, the effective management of trade imbalances is indispensable for India’s journey towards becoming a global economic powerhouse. By embracing proactive measures and leveraging its inherent strengths, India can navigate the complexities of global trade and emerge as a resilient and prosperous economy in the 21st century.

 

Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

5.  While the creation of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) represents a significant step towards achieving greater integration and synergy within the Indian military, realizing these objectives will require overcoming numerous challenges. Evaluate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

Media reports suggest that the complex and contentious policy issue of rewiring the Indian military into integrated theatre commands (ITC) is gaining traction and that the armed forces are looking at the appointment of a Vice Chief of Defence Staff and a Deputy Chief of Defence Staff.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of CDS to the nation’s security and reforms needed in the post of CDS.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the rationale behind creation of the post of CDS.

Body:

In the first part, mention his role – he will be the single-point military adviser to the government as suggested by the Kargil Review Committee in 1999.

Next, Mention the roles and responsibilities of CDS – oversees and coordinates the working of the three Services, ensure the Army, Navy and IAF, which often pull in different directions, truly integrate to slash wasteful expenditure amidst the ongoing severe fund crunch for military modernization.

Next, write about the various limitations associated with CDS in its shorts existence and steps needed to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Chief of Defence staff (CDS) is a four-star General/Officer who acts as the Principal Military Advisor to the Defence Minister on all tri-services (Army, Navy and Indian Air Force) matters. The Government is reassessing the concept of post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) as well as the Department of Military Affairs (DMA) and is looking to streamline the setup. 

Media reports suggest that the complex and contentious policy issue of rewiring the Indian military into integrated theatre commands (ITC) is gaining traction and that the armed forces are looking at the appointment of a Vice Chief of Defence Staff and a Deputy Chief of Defence Staff.

Body

Rationale behind creation of CDS

  • Increasing demands
    • With the increasing complexity of security challenges in the modern warfare arena, there was a need for an integrated approach towards defence strategy.
    • There are communication issues, budgetary overruns by individual commands, inter-alia which demanded joint working of Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • Jointness:
    • CDS will ensure and promote thejointness (functioning together of the three services independently) through joint planning of command operations, logistics, transport, training, communications, repairs and maintenance of the three services within three years of operation.
    • This will ensure close cooperation and collaborationamongst the defence forces.
  • Integration:
    • There is a need for inducing integration (putting together the three Services at different levels and placing them under one commander) in different services.
    • However, there is a difference between integration and jointnessof command.
  • Lack of Resources:
    • CDS as‘first among equals’ will act as a single point advisor and could be held accountable for his actions and decisions taken.
    • Restructured military commands for optimal utilization of resources will avoid unnecessary duplication and wasteful expenditure.
  • Expertise:
    • Being into the services for so long, the expertise and knowledge of CDS to deal with the adverse situations could be appropriately utilized in order to achieve the desired aims, creating an architecture for joint commands.

Responsibility of CDS:

  • CDS will administer the tri-services organisations/agencies related to Cyber and Space.
  • CDS will look into monitoring of contracts, promoting the use of indigenous equipment, leveraging of current systems and transforming them, and prioritising the procurement of defence equipment in a better way.
  • He will also assign inter-services prioritisation to capital acquisition proposals based on the anticipated budget.
  • CDS will bring reforms to augment the combat capabilities of the forces and is expected to evaluate plans for ‘out of area contingencies’ for countries in India’s neighbourhood.

Challenges:

  • Mandate for defence of the nation is still with the Department of Defence but the procurement process except capital acquisitions lies with CDS.
  • This gives birth to dichotomy as on one hand CDS is expected to prioritise the expenditure between the three services but the wherewithal still lies with the Defence Secretary.
  • Hence, the budgetary power still lies with the bureaucrats which demands timely intervention by the government.
  • CDS has the mandate of force planning(planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities).
  • Changing role of warfare- being more technology-oriented over rationalisation/rightsizing of manpower needs to be addressed properly.
  • India faces frequent conflicts on its land frontiers. Balancing this realisation that both maritime and air power are going to play an increasingly important rolein India’s rise as a leading power will be among the initial strategic challenges that would be faced by the CDS.
  • The government is yet to take a call on who the new CDS will be, despite the post lying vacant for nearly five months.

Conclusion and way forward

  • The appointment of a CDS, can lead to the development of theatre commands in the future.
  • Theaterisation has its advantages but the debate among the services on the need for such a move is far from over.
  • The success of the CDS will depend on the kind of powers the person appointed to the post enjoys. For the CDS to be effective, he would need to have control on the decision-making apparatus.
  • If the Ministry of Defence has the power to overrule the CDS, especially in the case of procurement of equipment for the three services, the move may yield low dividends.
  • The positives that this move may have can’t be ascertained until the government reveals the nuts and bolts of its plan.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;

6. Probity is foundational for building trust and maintaining a positive reputation. Discuss. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about importance of probity for an organisation.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining what is Probity.

Body:

Argue on the lines that for a moral society, it is necessary for all the stakeholders- the government, the corporate and the civil society must express the highest levels of probity in public life. Congruence and alignment of morality among the stakeholders is a major prerequisite to ensure a harmonious and ethic al existence of all the players promoting a just society. Illustrate the same with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying that Probity is one of the main pillars for a just society.

Introduction

Probity is “the quality or condition of having strong moral principles, integrity, good character, honesty, decency”. It is the act of adhering to the highest principles and ideals rather than avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It balances service to the community against the self-interest of individuals.

Body

Probity is the evidence of ethical behaviour in organisational processes, adhering to the standards of integrity, transparency, and honesty

  • Integrity and probity in public life are the standards that society expects those elected or appointed to public office to observe and maintain in the conduct of the public affairs to which they have been entrusted.
  • These standards are what safeguard the nation from corruption by politicians and public officials who have been given almost unrestricted access to public resources together with the power to take decisions that impact on the lives of everyone and the nation as a whole.
  • The absence of integrity and probity in public life is manifested in corruption which is a worldwide phenomenon.
  • But its impact is strongest and most pervasive in small states that already suffer from all the known disadvantages that characterise smallness such as unfavourable economies of scale, high per capita cost of government, remoteness, and distance from large markets and centres of large populations among others.
  • In addition to all these, small States also tend to suffer from ineffective parliamentary oversight, weak and undeveloped systems of checks and balances like a strong and independent media as well as civil society groups with the capacity to investigate, challenge and call to account those in positions of power.
  • Leaders who are corrupt will exploit these weaknesses to the fullest to enrich themselves and those closest to them at the expense of the country.
  • In societies where a blind eye is turned to corruption elements in the private sector give bribes to those exercising power in order to curry favour.
  • The giving and taking of bribes leads not only to personal enrichment but also to wrong decision-making with consequential misallocation of national resources into high profile “political” projects that will attract votes at the expense of less spectacular but economically and socially more useful ones.

Measures to ensure probity

  • Statutory Code of Values and Ethics for Public Services– It should be expressed in simple language, easily understandable and should lay down fundamental values that ought to govern the conduct of public servants. For example, British Civil Services Code.
  • Ethical framework –Need for an ethical frameworkthat should provide for prevention and guidance, investigation, disciplinary action, and prosecution.
  • Ethical Guidance –It should include training in ethics, awareness and development of essential skill for ethical analysis and moral judgement.
  • Sanction and punishment –Violation and breaches of the Code of Ethicsshould invite sanction and punishment under the disciplinary rules. A simplified disciplinary regime should be put in place which, while following the principle of natural justice, may speedily and summarily decide cases and take punitive action against delinquent employees.
  • Independent office of Ethics Commissioner– Need to create such an independent office on the US patternto provide leadership in ethics and values. Ethics Commissioner should issue and interpret rules which govern standards of conduct and conflict of interest.

Conclusion

It is a shared belief that the adoption of standards like “accountability”, “transparency” and “responsiveness” will lead to clean and efficient governance. However, standards do not, by themselves, ensure ethical behaviour: which requires a robust culture of integrity and probity in public life. The crux of ethical behaviour does not lie only in standards, but in their adoption in action and in issuing sanctions against their violation.

 

Topic: Philosophical basis of governance and probity

7.  What are the major principles of ethical governance? Explain with examples. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the attributes of ethical governance.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining ethical governance.

Body:

Write about the various attributes of ethical governance – ethical behaviours, processes, procedures, culture, ways of doing and being that ensure high standards of performance, economy, effectiveness, efficiency, quality and satisfaction etc. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The World Bank defines governance as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development

According to the United Nations Development Programme, Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the “proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public” (legitimacy). And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation)

Ethical governance meant that the manner in which power is exercised for an organisation by using its resources, including social and economic, is acceptable by all. It could range from personal rights to effective service delivery for all.

 

Body

Ethical governance is the right and justified conduct of activities of an organization (or government) to serve the larger public interest. Impartiality, accountability, transparency, honesty, integrity, probity, perseverance, truthfulness, citizen centricity, patriotism among other are some of the values which are must for attainment of ethical governance.

Major Features of Ethical Governance:

Participation

  • Good Governance truly promotes inclusive democracy allowing Right to Freedom.
  • Promote Citizen centric governance

Transparency

  • Easy accessible available affordable information
  • Promote accountable government

Rule of Law

  • Rule of law warrants that fair legal frameworks are implemented impartially.
  • It also means protection of human rights.

Responsiveness

  • This implies that processes and institutions should serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.

Consensus oriented

  • Consensus oriented decision-making ensures that even if everyone does not achieve what they want to the fullest, a common minimum can be achieved by everyone which will not be detrimental to anyone.

Accountability

  • Accountability should be there not just for the government, but also for citizens, the private sector, industry, NGOs, and all stakeholders.

Conclusion

Hence, governance shall be good as well as ethical to promote citizen centric participatory inclusive equitable development among all.

 

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