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Facts for Prelims (FFP)



Lancet Study on Global Life ExpectancyA recent Lancet study spanning from 1990 to 2021 revealed a global increase in life expectancy by 6.2 years, attributed to reduced deaths from enteric infections (food and waterborne illnesses caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses), lower respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, and strokes. Enteric diseases, notably typhoid and diarrhoea, led to the highest reduction in deaths. Lower respiratory infections and measles also played significant roles.
However, COVID-19 emerged as the second leading cause of age-standardized deaths in 2021, with varying impacts across regions, emphasizing the need for effective disease mitigation programs.
About The Lancet:  It was established in England in 1823, and is a prestigious weekly peer-reviewed medical journal known for its high impact. Owned by Elsevier since 1991, it publishes original research articles, reviews, editorials, and more.



Measuring the Emissions and Energy Footprint of the ICT Sector ReportJointly released by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the World Bank


Key Highlights: Rapid digitalization expansion increases energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The ICT sector accounts for 1.7% of global emissions.  60% of renewable power purchases in 2021 were from the ICT sector. France is the only country compiling telecommunications sector emissions.


Key Recommendations: Data-driven approach is needed for informed policy decisions and emission reduction targets. Technology transitions in the ICT sector can reduce emissions with careful planning for inclusivity. Regulatory modifications, incentives, and collaboration between ICT and energy sectors can promote sustainable energy access.


About ITU: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (HQ: Geneva, Switzerland) is the oldest UN agency, founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union. It promotes the global use of radio spectrum, assigns satellite orbits, sets technical standards, and improves telecom infrastructure. ITU has 193 member countries (including India) and numerous businesses, academic institutions, and organizations.


“Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2024” was

released by UNESCAP

Key findings from the 2024 survey highlight the challenges facing developing countries in balancing debt servicing with investments in critical sectors like education and health. Despite steady economic performance in Asia-Pacific, issues like weaker purchasing power, limited job opportunities, and income inequality persist


Key recommendations Include:


1.      Prioritize macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline to keep government borrowing costs low.

2.      Implement policy measures to improve revenue collection and boost domestic savings.

3.      Shift international development cooperation towards affordable, long-term financing.

4.      Enhance the roles of multilateral development banks and credit rating agencies.

5.      Address fiscal implications of global megatrends like demographic shifts and climate change.


About UNESCAP: The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) (est. 1947; HQ: Bangkok) serves as a pivotal forum for governments across the region to convene and deliberate on matters pertaining to economic and social development. Currently, it comprises 53 member countries and 9 associate members, with India being one of its prominent members.