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Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) project

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: Fermilab

 Context: India moves from research and development to the construction phase for its contributions to Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) project, a significant particle accelerator endeavour.


What is Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan?

Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) is a project aimed at enhancing the capabilities of Fermilab’s particle accelerators, particularly the proton beamlines. PIP seeks to improve the intensity, quality, and reliability of the proton beams produced at Fermilab, enabling a wide range of scientific experiments and research, including studies on neutrinos and other fundamental particles.


What is PIP-II?

The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) marks the first particle accelerator in the U.S. constructed with substantial contributions from global partners. Collaborating institutions from India (through the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)), France, Italy, Poland, and the UK are involved. India’s contribution amounts to $140 million worth of components. PIP-II’s primary purpose is to build a superconducting linear accelerator at Fermilab and generate the world’s most high-energy neutrino beam for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF).


Definition of the terms:

PhotonsPhotons are elementary particles that represent light. They are massless particles that carry electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, radio waves, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. Photons exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties.
Particle AcceleratorA particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and energies. These accelerators are essential tools in particle physics, allowing scientists to study the fundamental constituents of matter by colliding particles at high speeds.
NeutrinoNeutrinos are subatomic particles that belong to the family of leptons. They are neutral, nearly massless particles that rarely interact with matter, making them challenging to detect. Neutrinos come in three types: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, and tau neutrinos.